Another PGC International Study Tour
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Iron Oxide Copper-Gold in South America
4 to 13 June 2007
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Andean Porphyries
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  • The Tour - Geological Summaries of the deposits and regions to be visited.
  • Iron oxide copper-gold deposits: Geology, space-time distribution and possible modes of origin: Williams P J, Barton M D, Johnson D A, Fontbote L, de Haller A, Mark G, Oliver N H S and Marschik R - 2005, in Hedenquist J W, Thompson J F H, Goldfarb R J and Richards J P (Eds.), 2005; Economic Geology, 100th Aniversary Volume, SEG, Denver, pp 371-405.
  • Iron oxide Copper-gold deposits in South America: Leveille R A, Marschik R - 2000, 31 International Geological Congress, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, August 6-17, 2000 - Abstract. 3p.
  • U-Pb geochronology of Archaean magmatism and basement reactivation in the Carajas area, Amazon Shield, Brazil: Machado N, Lindenmayer Z, Krogh T E, Lindenmayer D - 1991, in Precambrian Research, v49 pp 329-354.
  • Gold deposits of the Carajas mineral province: deposit types and metallogenesis: Villas R N, Santos M D - 2001, in Mineralium Deposita, v36, pp 300-331.
  • The Andes of Chile and Argentina: Mpodozis C, Ramos V - 1989, in Ericksen G E, Cañas Pinochet M T, Reinemund J A (Eds), 1989, Geology of the Andes and its Relation to Hydrocarbon and Mineral Resources: Houston, Texas, Circum-Pacific Council for Energy and Mineral resources Earth, Science Series, v11, pp 59-90.
  • Iron oxide-copper-gold deposits: an Andean view: Sillitoe R H - 2003, in Mineralium Deposita, v38 pp 787-812.
  • Gold and copper metallogeny of the Central Andes - past, present and future exploration objectives: SEG Distinguished Lecture: Sillitoe R H - 1992, Economic Geology, v87, pp 2205-2216.
  • The cupriferous province of the Coastal Range, Northern Chile: Espinoza S, Veliz H, Esquival J, Arias J, Moraga A - 1996, in Camus E, Sillitoe R H, Peterson R (Eds), Andean Copper Deposits: New Discoveries, Mineralisation, Styles and Metallogeny, Soc. Economic Geology, Spec Pub no. 5 1996, pp 19-32.
  • The role of the Antofagasta-Calama Lineament in ore deposit deformation in the Andes of northern Chile: Palacios C, Ramírez L E, Townley B, Solari M and Guerra N - 2007, in Mineralium Deposita, v42, pp 301-308.
Carajás District *
  • Spatial and temporal zoning of hydrothermal alteration and mineralization in the Sossego iron oxide copper gold deposit, Carajas Mineral Province, Brazil: paragenesis and stable isotope constraints: Monteiro L V S, Xavier R P, Hitzman M W, Carvalho E R, Johnson C A, Souza Filho C R and Torresi I - 2007, in Mineralium Deposita, Online First, 31p.
  • A three-stage genetic model for the Igarape Bahia lateritic gold deposit, Carajas, Brazil: Weisheng Zang, Fyfe W - 1993, in Economic Geology, v88, pp 1768-1779.
  • Igarape Bahia Au-Cu-(REE-U) deposit, Carajas Mineral Province, Northern Brazil: Tazava E, de Oliveira C G - 2000, in Porter T M (Ed), 2000, Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold & Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide, v1, pp 203-212.
  • Geology and SHRIMP U-Pb Geochronology of the Igarape Bahia Deposit,Carajas Copper-Gold Belt, Brazil: An Archean (2.57 Ga) Example of Iron-Oxide Cu-Au-(U-REE) Mineralization: Tallarico F H B, Figueiredo B R, Groves D I, Kositcin N, McNaughton N J, Fletcher I R and Rego J L - 2005, in Economic Geology, v100, pp 7-28.
  • Alemao copper-gold (-U-REE) deposit, Carajas, Brazil: Ronze P C, Soares A D V, dos Santos D G V, Barreira D F - 2000, in Porter T M (Ed), 2000, Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold & Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide, v1, pp 191-202.
  • Salobo 3 Alpha deposit: Geology and mineralisation: Souza L H, Vieira E A P - 2000, in Porter T M (Ed), 2000, Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold & Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide, v1, pp 213-224.
  • Re-Os and Pb-Pb geochronology of the Archean Salobo iron oxide copper-gold deposit, Carajas mineral province, northern Brazil: Requia K, Stein H, Fontbote L, Chiaradia MĘ- 2003, in Mineralium Deposita, v38 pp 727-738.
  • Ore genesis at the Salobo copper deposit, Serra dos Carajas: Lindenmayer Z G, Teixeira J B G - 1999, in Silva M G, Misi A (Ed.), 1999 Base Metal Deposits of Brazil CPRM, Brazil, pp 33-43.
Punta del Cobre District * & Candelaria *
  • Implications of Pb isotope signatures of rocks and iron oxide Cu-Au ores in the Candelaria-Punta del Cobre district, Chile: Marschik R, Chiaradia M, Fontbote L - 2003, in Mineralium Deposita, v38, pp 900-912.
  • Structural Setting of the Candelaria Fe Oxide Cu-Au Deposit, Chilean Andes: Arevalo C, Grocott G, Martin W, Pringle M and Taylor G - 2006, in Economic Geology, v101, pp 819-841.
  • The Candelaria-Punta del Cobre Iron Oxide Cu-Au(-Zn-Ag) deposits, Chile: Marschik R, Fontbote L - 2001, in Economic Geology, v96, pp 1799-1826.
  • La Candelaria and the Punta del Cobre district, Chile: Early Cretaceous iron oxide Cu-Au(Zn-Ag) mineralisation: Marschik R, Leveille R A, Martin W - 2000, in Porter T M (Ed), 2000, Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold & Related Deposits: A Global Perspective PGC Publishing, Adelaide, v1, pp 163-175.
  • Age of mineralization of the Candelaria Fe oxide Cu-Au deposit and the origin of the Chilean Iron Belt, based on Re-Os isotopes: Mathur R, Marschik R, Ruiz J, Munizaga F, Leveille R A, Martin W - 2002, in Economic Geology, v97, pp 59-71.
  • The Candelaria copper-gold deposit, Region III, Chile: Paragenesis, geochronology and fluid composition: Ullrich T D, Clark A H 1999 - in Stanley, et. al., (Eds), Mineral Deposits: Processes to Processing, Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 201-204.
Mantoverde *
  • Geology of the Manto Verde copper deposit, Northern Chile: A specularite-rich, hydrothermal-tectonic breccia related to the Atacama Fault Zone: Vila T, Lindsay N, Zamora R - 1996, in Camus E, Sillitoe R H, Peterson R (Eds), 1996, Andean Copper Deposits: New Discoveries, Mineralisation, Styles and Metallogeny Society of Economic Geologists, Spec. Pub. no. 5, pp 157-170
Mantos Blancos *
  • The Mantos Blancos copper deposit: an upper Jurassic breccia-style hydrothermal system in the Coastal Range of Northern Chile: Ramirez L E, Palacios C, Townley B, Parada M A, Sial A N, Fernandez-Turiel J L, Gimeno D, Garcia-Valles M and Lehmann B - 2006, in Mineralium Deposita, v41, pp 246-258.
  • Geology of Mantos Blancos Mine: Ramirez Rodriguez R D - 1995, in Green S M, Struhsacker E, (Eds), 1995, Geology & Ore Deposits of the American Cordillera, Field Trip Guidebook compendium, 1995, Geological Society, Nevada, pp 466-481.
Other Deposits
  • Geology, Geochronology, and Hf and Pb Isotopic Data of the Raul-Condestable Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold Deposit, Central Coast of Peru: de Haller A, Corfu F, Fontbote L, Schaltegger U, Barra F, Chiaradia M, Frank M and Alvarado J Z - 2006, in Economic Geology, v101, pp 281-310.
  • The Marcona Copper Project - Mina Justa Prospect Geology and Mineralisation: Baxter R, Meder K,Cinits R and Berezowski M - 2005, from -, 16p.
  • Marcona and Pampa de Pongo: Giant Mesozoic Fe-(Cu, Au) Deposits in the Peruvian Coastal Belt: Hawkes N, Clark A H and Moody T C - 2002, in Porter T M (Ed), 2002, Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold & Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide, v2, pp 115-130.
  • The magnetite deposits of El Romeral, Chile: Bookstrom A A 1977; in Economic Geology, v72, pp 1101-1130.
* = On tour itinerary

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For more information contact:   T M (Mike) Porter, of Porter GeoConsultancy   (

This tour was designed, developed, organised, managed and escorted by
T M (Mike) Porter of Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.

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