|The Igarapé Bahia Au-Cu-(REE-U) Deposit, Carajás Mineral Province, Northern Brazil|
Edison Tazava and Claudinei Gouveia de Oliveira, Universidade de Brasilia, Brazil.
in - Porter, T.M. (Ed), 2000 - Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold and Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide, v. 1, pp 203-212.
The Igarapé Bahia Au-Cu-(REE-U) deposit is located in the Carajás Mineral Province - Northern Brazil - and hosted by an Archaean low-grade metamorphosed volcanosedimentary sequence characterized by metavolcanic rocks at the footwall and metavolcanoclastic/metasedimentary rocks at the hangwall. An intense hydrothermal alteration occurred in this sequence, promoting intense chloritization, Fe-metasomatism, Cu-sulphidation (chalcopyrite and bornite), carbonatization, silicification, tourmalinization and biotitization.
The Cu-Au mineralization is hosted in the contact between metavolcanic and metavolcanoclastic/metasedimentary rocks and is divided in, magnetitic/sideritic heterolithic breccias and hydrothermalized metavolcanic rock, which are enriched in REE (monazite, alanite, xenotime, bastnäsite and parisite), Mo (molybdenite), U (uraninite), F (fluorite), Cl (ferropyrosmalite) and P (apatite). We believe that saline and F-Cl-rich fluids at high temperatures may have been responsible for carrying the REE, according to fluid inclusion and paragenetic studies.
C and O isotopic data from hydrothermal carbonates and fluid inclusion analyses from carbonate and quartz suggest the mixing of two fluids in both alteration and mineralization processes. Negative values of δ13C (-9.3 to -5.8‰) indicate the presence of magmatic fluid with high salinity; moreover, the large variation of δ12O (0.7 to 9.4‰) suggests a mixture between magmatic fluids of high T (higher isotopic values) and meteoric fluids (lower values).
On the basis of chemical and mineralogical composition, isotopic and fluid inclusion data, we propose in this paper a genetic model for the Igarapé Bahia deposit, that may be compared to the other intrusion-related hydrothermal Fe-oxide-(Cu-Au-U- REE) deposits.
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