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The Efemcukuru low sulphidation gold deposit is located near the Aegean coatline, 12 km south of the city of Izmir in Western Anatolia, Turkey.

Efemcukuru is one of a number of epithermal deposits in western Anatolia, including Ovocik and Kücükdere, 100 and 35 km to the north of Izmir respectively. (see the Ovocik record for more information)

The regional geology surrounding Efemcukuru comprises late Cretaceous to Paleogene flysch facies rocks which are intruded by Neogene rhyolites related to late orogenic Neogene volcanic activity.   This volcanic activity is part of an episode evident in Western Anatolia from the Oligocene to Pliocene.   From the Oligocene to upper Miocene volcanics were mainly calc-alkaline in nature.   From Upper Miocene to Pliocene shoshinitic to alkaline compositions predominated, located in general along the north-south and NW trending boundary of the younger graben systems of the Aegean region.

The flysch facies rocks at Efemcukuru comprise the Bornova Melange which consists of serpentinites, spilitic volcanics, lenses of micritic limestone and blocks of platformal carbonates in a matrix of flysch sediments, mainly shale (claystone-mudstone) and lesser intercalated sandstones.   Doleritic (diabase) and spilitic rocks are emplaced in NE-SW trending faults of the regional graben system as serpentinised, foliated slices.

In the mineralised area the flysch has been intruded by dome shaped hypabyssal felsic porphyries of rhyolitic composition dated at 11.9 Ma.   Flysch has been altered to an albite-epidote hornfels within 500 m of the porphyries with amphibole and lesser pyroxene, and varying amounts of quartz, calcite, chlorite, titanite and leucoxene.   Gold occurs in economic quantities (ie. >:2 ppm) where the host stockwork/disseminations are within the hornfels surrounding the dome shaped intrusives.   The intrusions and vein systems are both controlled by the NW-SE trending failts which dip at 60 to 80° NE.

The mineralisation is associated with intense hydrothermal activity represented by a vein system accompanying multistage brecciation, stockwork development, alteration and the deposition of polymetallic precious metals.   Supergene enrichment of the top 100 m of the vein system has upgraded the gold content, although the orebody has been indicated to depths of more than 300 m.

Alteration associated with the mineralisation includes rhodonite, axinite, quartz, calcite and adularia in the veins and stockworks, and chlorite, sericite, illite and kaolinite in the wallrocks.   The main sulphides are arsenopyrite, pyrite (marcasite), sphalerite, galena and chalcopyrite with lesser pyrrhotite, tetrahedrite, titanite, rutile and gold.   Secondary minerals include pyrolusite, limonite, covellite-chalcocite, malachite and azurite.

The estimated resource in 2003 was;   2.419 Mt @ 14.4 g/t Au.
  Ore reserves in 2003 were:   1.810 Mt @ 13.31 g/t Au.

For detail consult the reference(s) listed below.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 2003.    
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Kuscu, I., Aluc, A., Bogdanov, K., Todorova, D., Kuncheva, J. and Stoyanova, S.,  2013 - Western Anatolian Precious Metal Deposits: in    Sofia SEG Student Chapter Field Trip 20th -26th October, 2013,   Field Trip Guide, 35p.
Oyman T, Minareci F, Piskin O  2003 - Efemcukuru B-rich epithermal gold deposit ( Izmir, Turkey ): in    Ore Geology Reviews   v23 pp 35-53

Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo takes no responsibility what-so-ever for inaccurate or out of date data, information or interpretations.

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