Jiaodong Gold Field - Sanshandao, Jiaojia, Xincheng, Linglong, Taishang, Dayigezhuang, Cangshang, Wangershan, Jiehe, Hexi, Fushang, Daingezhuang, Pengjiakuang, Denggezhuang, Xiadian, Jinqingding, Damoqujia, Hushan, Sizhuanggezhuang

Shandong, China

Main commodities: Au
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The Cretaceous fault or shear zone controlled gold deposits of the 200 km long Jiaodong Gold Province are located on the Jiaodong Peninsular of eastern Shandong Province, northern China, approximately 450 km south-east of Beijing.

The most important deposits include Sanshandao, Jiaojia, Xincheng, Linglong, Taishang, Dayigezhuang, Cangshang, Wangershan, Jiehe, Hexi, Fushang, Daingezhuang, Pengjiakuang, Denggezhuang, Xiadian and Jinqingding, as well as Damoqujia, Hushan and Sizhuang, and ~300 smaller deposits and prospects.

Most of the deposits listed above are clustered in a broad, ~25 km wide NE-SW trending belt or cluster, distributed over a 75 km interval towards the western end of the district. The Rushan group, which includes Denggezhuang and Jinqingding are some 100 km to the ESE and are the subject of the second record Jiaodong Gold Field record.

The Jiaodong Peninsular is on the southeastern portion of the North China craton, immediately north of the easternmost part of the ultra-high pressure belt that marks the Late Permian to Early Jurassic suture between with the Yangtze craton to the south. It is made up of a sequence that includes the late Archaean (2.94 to 2.67 Ga with 3.0 to 3.4 Ga components) tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite and mafic to felsic volcanic and sedimentary rocks all of which have been subjected to amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism to form the granulite, gneiss, amphibolite and biotite-bearing schists of the Jiaodong Group. These Archaean rocks are unconformably overlain by a Proterozoic sequence comprising:
i). The Paleoproterozoic Jinshan Group, which is composed of a sequence of mainly silty clastics and calcareous-magnesian carbonates with intercalated mafic to ultramafic volcanics which have all been metamorphosed to a suite of mica schist, quartz-feldspar-biotite gneiss, marbles and graphitic rocks.
ii). The Paleoproterozoic Fenzishan Group, comprising fine-grained gneiss, mica-quartz schist, feldspathic quartzite, magnetite-bearing rocks, marble and graphitic rocks that are the result of upper greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism of silty clastic sediments, Mg-rich carbonates, and calcareous clastics and pelites.
These two groups were deposited between 2484 and 2381 Ma and metamorphosed during from 2224 to 1847 Ma (Luliang orogeny) and are overlain by,
iii). The Neoproterozoic lower greenschist facies limestones, dolomite, slate and phyllite of the Panglai Group.

All of these rocks have been subjected to multiple stages of granulite- to greenschist-facies metamorphism over the timespan 2945 to 1674 Ma.   They are overlain by Mesozoic shales, clastics and volcanics and are intruded by voluminous Mesozoic (Jurassic to Cretaceous) Yanshanian age granitoid intrusives, which occupy over 40% of the terrane, and were emplaced in two episodes, 164 to 155 and 130 to 126 Ma, the first of which is largely due to anatectic reactivation of the basement rocks. The mineralised Yanshanian granites are grouped into three types, i). the 160 to 150 Ma Linglong biotite granite with a gneissic structure; ii). the 130 to 126 Ma Guojialing biotite-hornblende granodiorite; and iii). the medium to coarse-grained massive Luanjiahe granite, all of which are multiphase batholiths containing numerous xenoliths of Jiaodong Group basement rocks. They are typically calc-alkaline in character and are interpreted to have formed from anatectic reactivation of basement volcanic and sedimentary rocks.

The gold deposits of the 200 km long Jiaodong Gold Province together contain more than 1600 t of gold and in 2000 produced 55 t of gold.   Approximately 80% of the reserves are in the 3500 sq. km Zhaoyuan-Laizhou gold belt within this province. Around 85% of the gold resources are spatially associated with the 3000 sq. km, 165 to 125 Ma Linglong and Guojialing Granites. Only 5% are hosted by Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The emplacement of gold is largely constrained to the time interval between 130 and 120 Ma.

Two main stages of deformation have been defined in the Jiaodong gold province during the late Mesozoic, the first of which was dominated by NW-SE oblique compression, producing a series of NNE- to NE-trending brittle-ductile shear zones with sinistral oblique reverse movements, followed by a later reactivation, expressed by brittle structures and half-graben basins. These structures are believed to be subsidiary to the major Tan-Lu fault.

Two main types of gold deposit are recognised, namely: i). Linglong type large quartz vein systems, predominantly hosted within granites in second or third order brittle fractures, occurring as single or multiple, relatively continuous quartz veins; and ii). Jiaojia type, defined by disseminated and small veinlets/stockworks along first order regional faults and shear zones, surrounded by broad alteration halos and often concentrated along granite-metamorphic rock contacts.

Both types of gold deposits are similar in their geology and geochemistry. Ore mineral assemblages are dominantly pyrite, with lesser galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite. Four stages of mineralisation recognised include: i). pyrite-quartz; ii). gold-bearing pyrite-quartz; iii). gold-bearing multiple metallic sulphides and quartz; and iv). quartz-carbonate. Gold and silver are mainly present as native gold and electrum and are concentrated in stages ii and iii. Alteration minerals are sericite, muscovite, sulphides (mainly pyrite, pyrrhotite and arsenopyrite), carbonates, K-feldspar, chlorite, and kaolinite. The mineralization has returned radiometric ages of 100±4 to 135±5 Ma for eight major gold deposits, 5 to 20 m.y. younger than those of corresponding granitic intrusions in the same belt.

The Xiadian deposit, which has reserves of >200 t of gold (Wei et al., 2017), is regarded as a typical Jiaojia-type gold deposit, and is characterised by disseminated and stockwork ores enclosed by hydrothermally altered wall rocks. Ma et al. (2017) present precise in situ monazite U-Pb dating to constrain the age of the gold mineralisation, and possible genesis of the gold deposit. The earliest magmatic event at Xiadian is represented by the Linglong granite, which yielded a zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb age of 159.5±0.9 Ma. Subsequent minor quartz-pyrite-molybdenite veining is dated at 124.8±2.1Ma by molybdenite Re-Os from a granitic pegmatite. These veins were formed close to the emplacement of the adjacent 126 to 130 Ma Guojialing granodiorite, and thus may be the product of post-magmatic hydrothermal activity. Ma et al. (2017) suggest these molybdenum-bearing hydrothermal fluids acted as a prelude to gold mineralisation and participated in the formation of the latter ore fluids. Gold mineralisation occurred at 120.0±1.4 Ma, determined by LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating on hydrothermal monazite from quartz-polymetallic sulphide veins. Prior to and after mineralisation, voluminous hydrothermally altered porphyritic diorite and fresh quartz diorite porphyry dykes were emplaced, with U-Pb ages of 121.3±1.4 and 115.8±1.9 Ma, respectively. Based on these geochronological data, Ma et al. (2017) suggests that the genesis of Xiadian deposit might be related to the craton destruction and lithosphere thinning in the North China Craton.

The Cangshang deposit is developed at the faulted (Cangshang Fault) contact between a hangingwall of Palaeoproterozoic Fenzishan Group metamorphics to the south-east and a footwall of Mesozoic Linglong granitoid to the north-west.   The Cangshang Fault trends at around 40° and dips at 35 to 45° SE.   It has been mapped over a 7 km length and varies from 50 to 200 m in width.

In the vicinity of the ore deposit the Fenzishan Group comprises fine grained amphibolite (plagioclase-hornblende amphibolite with rare quartz and garnet) with lesser fine grained gneiss and hornblendite.   The Linglong granitoid consists of fine to medium and even grained grey-white granodiorite.   A series of post mineralisation pegmatite dykes also occur in the pit, as does an altered mafic dyke which cuts the orebody.

Alteration in the vicinity of the ore comprises silicification, sericite, pyrite, K-feldspar, chlorite and carbonate.   A large alteration halo associated with the deposit is developed along the Cangshang Fault, with dimensions of1900 m in length by 85 to 185 m in width, and is known to extend to at least 640 m depth.   Three alteration suites have been outlined, as follows:  i). Zone 3 which occurs within the hangingwall Fenzishan Group amphibolite and takes the form of sericitic and chloritic sheared rock which extends for 60 m into the hangingwall.  ii). Zone 2, found in the immediate footwall of the ore, adjacent to and below the main fault zone and is charcaterised by strong pyrite alteration with sericite and silicification to form a pyrite-sericite-quartz rock.  iii). Zone 1, which is restricted to the footwall Linglong granitoid and is found below the Zone 2 alteration.   It is the weakest of the three and comprises K feldspar, sericite and silicification.

The No. 1 Orebody contains 98% of the reserve and is predominantly controlled by the Cangshang Fault.   It lies within the Zone 2 alteration zone and covers a width of as much as 50 m below the main fault plane.   The orebody has a strike length of1360 m, its mean thickness is 10 m, although it has a maximum width of 43.5 m and a mean grade of 4.81 g/t Au.   The ore is mainly composed of pyritic, sericitic and silicified granite (as disseminations and a network of structurally controlled veinlets) with varying levels of brecciation, and lacks sharp boundaries - a cut-off of 2 g/t Au defines the ore zone.   The ore pitches north at 35 to 40°.   Sulphides include pyrite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite and arsenopyrite.   Pyrite is the most abundant and carries the gold which is also present as electrum and rare native gold.   The principal gangue minerals are quartz, sericite, feldspar, calcite, barite and chlorite.   Alteration sericite has been dated at 121 ±0.2 Ma.

The deposit supported one of the largest open pit gold mines in China in 2003 when it had a resource of more than 50 tonnes of gold.   The average head grade in 2001 was 4.8 g/t Au.

The Sanshandao gold deposit is located around 30 km north of Laizhou City and is confined to the major NE trending Sanshandao fault which cuts the Sanshandao Granodiorite, a member of the Guojialing granodiorite suite. The Sanshandao Granodiorite is a small NE-SW trending stock emplaced within mafic to intermediate gneisses and migmatised amphibolites of the Archaean Jiaodong Group.   The deposit comprises a high density concentration of high grade quartz-sulphide veinlets and stockworks. The bulk of the ore is disseminated within highly fractured and altered Mesozoic granodiorite.   This alteration is characterised by strong silicification, sericitisation, sulphidation and K-feldspar alteration.   Ore most commonly occurs as disseminated gold within sericite-, quartz- and pyrite-altered granodiorite along the Sanshandao Fault with lesser K-feldspar, carbonate and locally chlorite. Mineralisation is also found to a lesser degree as gold-quartz vein/veinlet stockworks, predominantly within the latered granodiorite and occassionally in the Archaean gneiss. There are four stages of vein development as follows:  a). Quartz-K feldspar-sericite,  b). Quartz-pyrite ±arsenopyrite,  c). Quartz-base metal sulphide and  d). Quartz-carbonate.

Structures associated with the fault zone are characterised by early shearing and late brittle deformation over a zone that is some 200 m wide and 5 km in length. Six orebodies have been delineated, concentrated within dilational intervals of the major fault zone. The largest of these orebodies is over 1000 m in length, averages 0.4 to 6.2 m in thickness and has been traced to a depth of around 900 m. The ore zones trand at 20 to 40° and dip at between 30 and 50° SE. Grades range from 3 to 10 g/t Au. The Sanshandao deposits are said to contain more than 60 t of gold and together with the Cangshang deposit which is 5 km to the south-west on the same structure have a resource of approximately 107 t Au at an average grade of 6.1 g.t Au (in 2001).

The Linglong group of gold deposits are distributed over an area of 75 sq. km, including the Dongfeng, Jiuqyu, Dakaitou, Shuangding, Dongshan, Linglomg and Vein-108 deposits. Gold occurs in large quartz veins within the Linglong and Guojialing Granites, with orebodies commonly concentrated at the intersection of NNE-, NE- and ENE-trending shear zones and faults. Over 540 significant auriferous quartz veins have been recognised, with lengths of from 100 to 5800 m, widths of 1 to 10 m (locally up to 100 m) and down dip extents of as much as 600 to 700 m. Ore grades vary from 3 to 32 g/t Au, mainly as gold or electrum in pyrite, or in quartz with pyrrhotite and local chalcopyrite, galena and spaherite. The principal alteration assemblages include white mica, pyrite, quartz, with lesser carbonate, chlorite, albite and K feldspar which typically surround veins over widths of a few metres.

The Linglong group of deposits contain more than 125 tonnes of Au at grades averaging 9.5 g/t Au (in 2001).

The Jiaojia-Xincheng group of gold deposits includes the Jiaojia, Xincheng, Wangershan, Hedong and Hexi deposits which occur along the contact between the Linglong and Guojialing Granites and Archaean amphibolite, gneiss and schist. The main control on vein trends are the moderately dipping NNE and NE striking faults and brittle-ductile shear zones. The larger orebodies are up to 1.2 km long, 2 to 4 m thick and extend down dip for as much as 850 m. Grades vary from 3 to 50 g//t Au, averaging around 10 g/t, occurring as stockworks and veinlets, and/or as disseminations in the altered wall rock. Ore and gangue assemblages in both veins and wall rock include pyrite, pyrrhotite, muscovite and K feldspar with lesser magnetite, electrum, gold, silver, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, chlorite, siderite, ankerite, epidote, and locally including arsenopyrite. The widest halos comprise epidote and chlorite over widths of tens of metres outward from the mineralised shear zones.

The Jiaojia deposit contains more than 125 tonnes of Au at grades averaging 7.3 g/t Au, while Xincheng has 85 t Au at grades of 7.2 g/t Au (in 2001).

The Fushang, Taishang and Daingezhuang deposits are found within the Linglong and Guojialing Granite plutons and are localised along faults and shear zones.

The Taishang deposit is 3 km east of the NE-SW trending Linglong Fault that hosts the prime example of a Linglong style vein ore 10 km to the north, and is estimated to contain over 108 tonnes of gold at a grade of 4.8 g/t Au.

The Fushang deposit contains more than 43 tonnes of Au at grades averaging 6.3 g/t Au, Taishang has 108 t Au at grades of 4.9 g/t Au and Daingezhuang has 44 t at an average grade of 4.6 g/t (in 2001).

The Rushan group of gold deposit are some of the largest lodes and are found on the eaetrn end of the district, separate from the main grouping of depsoits. Gold occurs mainly in pyrite- and polymetallic sulphide-quartz vein/veinlet stockworks. For details see the separate Rushan record.

For detail consult the reference(s) listed below.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 2012.    
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
de Boorder, H.,  2015 - The Jiaodong gold district, northeastern China, in the context of the Late Paleozoic and Late Mesozoic large igneous provinces, orogeny and metallogeny in Eurasia: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.65, pp. 574-588.
Deng, J. and Wang, Q.,  2016 - Gold mineralization in China: Metallogenic provinces, deposit types and tectonic framework: in    Gondwana Research   v.36, pp. 219-274.
Deng, J., Wang, C., Bagas, L., Carranza, E.J.M. and Lu, Y.,  2015 - Cretaceous-Cenozoic tectonic history of the Jiaojia Fault and gold mineralization in the Jiaodong Peninsula, China: constraints from zircon U-Pb, illite K-Ar, and apatite fission track thermochronometry: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.50, pp. 987-1006.
Fan, H.R., Zhai, M.G. and Xie, Y.H.,  2003 - Ore-forming fluids associated with granite-hosted gold mineralization at the Sanshandao deposit, Jiaodong gold province, China: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.38, pp. 739-750.
Groves, D. and Santosh, M.,  2016 - The giant Jiaodong gold province: The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?: in    Geoscience Frontiers   v.7, pp. 409-417.
Hu, F.F., Fan, H.R., Zhai, M.G/ and Jin, C.W.,  2006 - Fluid evolution in the Rushan lode gold deposit of Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern China: in    J. of Geochemical Exploration   v.89, pp. 161-164.
Li, J.-W., Vasconcelos P, Zhou, M.-F., Zhao, X.-F. and Ma, C.-Q.,  2006 - Geochronology of the Pengjiakuang and Rushan Gold Deposits, Eastern Jiaodong Gold Province, Northeastern China: Implications for Regional Mineralization and Geodynamic Setting: in    Econ. Geol.   v.101, pp. 1023-1038.
Liang, Y., Liu, X., Wang, Q., Zhao, R. and Ma, Y.,  2020 - Late Mesozoic magmatism in the Jiaodong Peninsula, East China: Implications for crust-mantle interactions and lithospheric thinning of the eastern North China Craton: in    Geoscience Frontiers   v.11, pp. 895-914.
Lu, S., Zhao, G., Wang, H. and Hao, G.,  2008 - Precambrian metamorphic basement and sedimentary cover of the North China Craton: A review: in    Precambrian Research   v.160, pp. 77-93.
Ma, W.-D., Fan, H.-R., Liu, X., Pirajno, F., Hu, F.-F., Yang, K.-F., Yang, Y.-H., Xu, W.-G. and Jiang, P.,  2017 - Geochronological framework of the Xiadian gold deposit in the Jiaodong province, China: Implications for the timing of gold mineralization: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.86, pp. 196-211.
Qiu, Y., Groves, D.I., McNaughton, N.J., Wang, L.-G. and Zhou, T.,  2002 - Nature, age, and tectonic setting of granitoid-hosted, orogenic gold deposits of the Jiaodong Peninsula, eastern North China craton, China: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.37, pp. 283-305.
Wang, L.G., Qiu, Y.M., McNaughton, N.J., Groves, D.I., Luo, Z.K., Huang, J.Z., Miao, L.C. and Liu, Y.K.,  1998 - Constraints on crustal evolution and gold metallogeny in the Northwestern Jiaodong Peninsula, China, from SHRIMP U-Pb zircon studies of granitoids: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.13, pp. 275-291.
Yang, L., Deng, J., Guo, R., Guo, L., Wang, Z., Chen, B. and Wang, X.,  2016 - World-class Xincheng gold deposit: An example from the giant Jiaodong gold province: in    Geoscience Frontiers   v.7, pp. 419-430.
Yang, L.-Q., Deng, J., Wang, Z.-L., Guo, L.-N., Li, R.-H., Groves, D.I., Danyushevsky, L.V., Zhang, C. Zheng, X.-L. and Zhao, H.,  2016 - Relationships Between Gold and Pyrite at the Xincheng Gold Deposit, Jiaodong Peninsula, China: Implications for Gold Source and Deposition in a Brittle Epizonal Environment: in    Econ. Geol.   v.111, pp. 105-126
Zhang, L., Weinberg, R.F., Yang, L.-Q., Groves, D.I., Sai, S.-X., Matchan, E., Phillips, D., Kohn, B.P., Miggins, D.P., Liu, Y. and Deng, J.,  2020 - Mesozoic Orogenic Gold Mineralization in the Jiaodong Peninsula, China: A Focused Event at 120 2 Ma During Cooling of Pregold Granite Intrusions: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 415-441.
Zhang, X., Cawood, P.A., Wilde, S.A., Liu, R., Song, H., Li, W. and Snee, L.W.,  2003 - Geology and timing of mineralization at the Cangshang gold deposit, north-western Jiaodong Peninsula, China: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.38, pp. 141-153.
Zhou, T. and Lu, G.,  2000 - Tectonics, granitoids and mesozoic gold deposits in East Shandong, China: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.16, pp. 71-90.
Zhou, T., Goldfarb, R.J. and Phillips, G.N.,  2002 - Tectonics and distribution of gold deposits in China - an overview: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.37, pp. 249-282.

Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo takes no responsibility what-so-ever for inaccurate or out of date data, information or interpretations.

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