Madenkoy, Murgul (Cakmakkaya, Anayatak), Kutlular, Kotarak Dere, Tunca, Kure (Asikoy, Bakibaba)


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A string of volcanic hosted massive sulphide (VMS) deposits are found along the Black Sea coast of eastern Turkey.   These include Madenköy, Murgul, Kutlular, Kotarak Dere, Tunca and Küre (Asikoy & Bakibaba).

These deposits are associated with the formation of Upper Cretaceous island arc volcanism and are related to a 250 m thick felsic pyroclastic member.   This part of Turkey contains a 2000 to 3000 m thick pile of volcanic rocks with relatively thin intercalations of marine sediments and range in age from early Jurassic to Miocene.   The volcanics sequence was emplaced in three phases:
i). Jurassic to upper Cretaceous, commencing with basalts, which change progressively to felsic lava flows and then to thick pyroclastics which contain the bulk of the mineralisation,
ii). minor transgressive volcanic breccias, tuffs and marine sediments overlain by late Cretaceous limestones,
iii). Palaeocene marine sediments followed by andesitic and minor basaltic lava flows.

The main deposits may be briefly summarised as follows:

Madenköoy - The ore occurs as a lens shaped body dipping at 45°NW, with subordinate stringer ore and is hosted by dacitic tuff with associated clay and carbonate alteration zones in the footwall and hangingwall.   It comprises:   24 Mt @ 2.9% Cu, 4.3% Zn, 0.11% Pb. Note: this deposit is not to be confused with the Siirt Madenköy copper deposit, some 330 km to the south in SE Turkey.

Murgul - composed mostly of stringer ore in dacite tuffs, with associated argillic, siliceous and carbonatic alteration (see the separate summary for Murgul).   The deposits at Murgul (Cakmakkaya and Anayatak) contained:   71 Mt @ 1.1% Cu, 0.1% Zn, 0.05% Pb.

Kutlular - ore is present as both massive and stringer ore, with mineralisation continuing into the hangingwall tuffs, with associated argillic alteration.   The ore deposit contained:   1.26 Mt @ 2.4% Cu, 1.5% Zn, 0.04% Pb and 0.76 Mt @ 2.4% Cu.

Kotarak Dere - comprising a small remnant body of massive sulphide which is underlain by stringer ore developed within dacite tuffs with mainly argillic alteration.   The ore deposit contained:   0.9 Mt @ 1.0% Cu, 0.3% Zn, 0.01% Pb.

Küre (Asikoy & Bakibaba) - is over 100 km south and west of the volcanic arc and is hosted by pillowed spilites of the palaeo Tethys ophiolites which were obducted onto the Rhodope-Pontide massif during the middle Jurassic.   The two mines are 1.5 km apart, with a single 10 Mt massive sulphide orebody at Asikoy, and a number of 0.05 to 0.5 Mt lenses.   The massive ores have associated stringer and footwall alteration pipes near the contact of the footwall spilitic basalts and the overlying carbonaceous shales.   The pillowed spilite in the footwall of the orebodies usually gives way upwards to breccias.   The footwall spilites show strong replacement by sulphides and quartz while the breccias are composed of fragments separated by a network of1 to 3 cm thick veins.   The overlying massive sulphides exhibit remnant pillow structures, while the lower 30 to 40 cm of the carnonaceous argillite that follows is also mineralised as thin 1 mm pyrite bands following the argillite laminations.   The Kure ore deposits together contained:   13.5 Mt @ 1.7% Cu, 0.1% Zn, 0.02% Pb.

For detail see the reference(s) listed below.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 1990.    
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Cagatay M N  1993 - Hydrothermal alteration associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits: examples from Turkey: in    Econ. Geol.   v88 pp 606-621
Ediger V S and Erler A,  1990 - Palynology, geochemistry, and thermal history of the shales associated with the Küre massive sulfide deposits (northern Turkey): in    Ore Geology Reviews   v5 pp 461-468
Schneider H J, Ozgur N, Palacios C M  1988 - Relationship between alteration, rare earth element distribution, and mineralization of the Murgul Copper deposit, northeastern Turkey: in    Econ. Geol.   v83 pp 1238-1246

Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo takes no responsibility what-so-ever for inaccurate or out of date data, information or interpretations.

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