Sausar Group Manganese Gondites - Balaghat, Kachidhana, Gowari Wadhona, Kodegaon, Gumgaon, Ramdongri, Kandri, Mansar, Dongri, Buzurg, Chikla, Sitasaongri, Sitapatore, South & North Tirodi, Ramrama, Shodan Hurki, Netra, Bharweli, Laugor, Ghondi, Ukwa


Main commodities: Mn
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The Palaeo to Mesoproterozoic Sausar Group of central India contains extensive beds of manganese mineralisation known as "gondites" which are the basis of significant manganese oxide and silicate ores over extensive strike lengths.   Gondites are found in the following states and districts (Indian Bureau of Mines, 2014) Madhya Pradesh (Balaghat, Chhindwara, Jabalpur and Jhabua districts); Maharashtra (Bhandara and Nagpur districts); Gujarat (Panchamahal, Sabarkhantha and Banaskantha districts); Odisha (Sundergarh districts); and Rajasthan (Banswara and Sawai Madhopur districts). Deposits exploited include:  Balaghat, Kachidhana, Gowari Wadhona, Kodegaon, Gumgaon, Ramdongri, Kandri, Mansar, Dongri, Buzurg, Chikla, Sitasaongri, Sitapatore, South Tirodi, North Tirodi, Ramrama, Shodan Hurki, Netra, Bharweli, Laugor, Ghondi  and Ukwa.

The Sausar Group and equivalents are known over a strike length of up to 210 km and form an arcuate folded belt some 75 km wide which has a general ENE-WSW trend. This group is characterised by the development of gondites, which are made up of manganese oxides, the manganese garnet spessartine and the manganese pyroxene rhodonite, but also include pyroxmangite, rhodochrosite and bustamite. They are bounded by gneisses to the north and the Central Indian Suture to the south. Members of the Sausar Group unconformably overlie the 2100 to 2400 Ma Malanjkhand pluton.

The group is composed primarily of metamorphosed sandy, shaly and calcareous sediments. Volcanic rocks are virtually absent. Calcareous formations are best developed to the north and west, and argillaceous units to the south and east. In general they have been metamorphosed to upper amphibolite facies, but have also undergone anatexis to produce migmatites and gneisses. In general the metamorphism increases to the north and west. Near the Balaghat Mn mine they are of greenschist facies, while farthest to the north-west rocks with a granulite assemblage are encountered. Deformation is intense and is coeval with the metamorphism, producing shearing, thrusting and nappe development (Mahmood Naqvi and Rogers, 1987; Jain, et al., 1995).

The stratigraphy has been summarised as follows, from the base (Mahmood Naqvi and Rogers, 1987):

 Sitasaongi Formation - quartz-muscovite-feldspar schists and intercalated quartzites, with local kyanite and garnet.
 Lohangi Formation - composed of three interfingering members, comprising
  i). quartz-biotite granulite and gneisses;
  ii). calc-silicate gneisses and granulites; and
  iii). calcitic and dolomitic marbles.
Relatively minor gondite bands are interbedded within the limestone units of this formation.
 Mansar Formation - micaceous schists and phyllite, commonly with garnet, and quartzite. This is the most widespread unit in the group and contains the main manganese ores of the gondite bands which are sharply interbedded with schists and quartzite. There are three gondite bands recorded, at the base, near the middle and at the top of the formation. Graphitic schists are found below the manganese orebodies and contain disseminated pyrrhotite and pyrite.
 Chorbaoli Formation, quartzites, micaceous and feldspathic quartz-schists and local autoclastic quartz conglomerates, containing sporadic garnet, sillimanite and kyanite.
 Junewani Formation, muscovite-biotite-quartz schists, granulites and gneisses, with index minerals of garnet, staurolite, sillimanite and kyanite.
 Bichua Formation, dolomitic, serpentine bearing marble and calc-silicate granulites, commonly interfingered with the lenticular Junewani Formation.

Five styles of manganese ore have been recognised, namely:  i). Mn oxide rocks,  ii). Mn silicate rocks with minor Mn oxides,  iii). Mn oxides with minor Mn silicates,  iv). Mn silica-carbonate rocks with minor Mn oxides, and  v). Mn oxide-carbonate rocks.

Of these the manganese oxides predominate.   Types iv). & v). occur as lenses within manganese oxide ores in random isolated pockets.

An endowment of at least 100 Mt of economic grade ore are known from past production and indicated remaining resources.

For detail see the reference(s) listed below.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 1995.    
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Dasgupta S, Roy S, Fukuka M  1992 - Depositional models for Manganese Oxide and Carbonate deposits of the Precambrian Sausar Group, India: in    Econ. Geol.   v87 pp 1412-1418

Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo takes no responsibility what-so-ever for inaccurate or out of date data, information or interpretations.

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