Norilsk, Talnakh, Oktyabrsky, Komsomolsky, Taimyrsky, Kharayelakh, Skalisty, Severnijy, Mayak,

Siberia, Russia

Main commodities: Ni Cu PGE PGM
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The Permo-Triassic Noril'sk - Talnakh groups of deposits of Siberia, northern Russia are 35 km apart and are developed near the north-western margin of the Siberian Platform. The deposits are found within and adjacent to gabbro-dolerite sills that represent part of the feeder zone of the up to 3500 m thick, vast Permo-Triassic Siberian trap basalts.

The basement to the Siberian Platform is composed of crystalline Proterozoic rocks overlain by late Proterozoic sediments, lower Palaeozoic marine dolomites, argillites and sandstones, and by Devonian marls and evaporites. These are followed by Carboniferous shallow water limestones, continental sediments and coal measures. The Palaeozoic sequence is around 6000 m thick.

The host sills are developed within and adjacent to the continental scale, NNE trending Noril'sk-Kharayelakh fault. These ore bearing sill like intrusive bodies have known dimensions of as much as 15x0.5 to 2 km and are from 50 to 300 m in thickness, although they only represent 1 to 2% of the total mafic intrusives in the district. A typical sill is said to consist of a lower olivine bearing, melanocratic gabbro-dolerite with a picritic composition, passing upwards into leucocratic gabbro-dolerites near the top. This has been variously interpreted to result from differentiation or from multiple intrusive pulses. On both the upper and lower margins there are zones of taxite containing increased sulphides, platinoids and chromite. A taxite is a mafic igneous rock with a very variable texture (from fine to pegmatitic) - and composition (leucocratic to melanocratic) - with discrete ghost-like remnants of inclusions of other gabbroic and country rocks. The upper zone is more weakly taxitic. A strong hornfels halo extends for 100 m below the sills and up to 250 m above.

There are three main ore types developed at Noril'sk and Talnakh. These are:

i). Disseminated sulphides within the differentiated gabbro-dolerite sills, principally on the lower margins of the mineralised sills in the taxitic and to a lesser degree the picritic zones. They occur as droplets, schleiren and fine sulphide veinlets, forming sheet like conformable bodies up to 40 m thick and comprise combinations of chalcopyrite, cubanite and pyrrhotite with troilite and pentlandite. Grades average 0.5 to 0.6% Ni, 0.6 to 0.7% Cu, and 5 to 6 g/t PGE;

ii). Massive sulphides found principally on the lower contact of the mineralised sills, both within the enclosing rocks and to a lesser degree the sill, and are often separated from the sill by several metres of barren sediment or cupriferous mineralisation. Sometimes they are also found on the upper margin of the sill. In other locations the massive sulphides cut across the sill to its upper margins. The massive sulphides are divided into either pyrrhotite, cubanite or chalcopyrite types, depending on the dominant sulphide, with associated pentlandite moihoekite and talnakhite. Individual massive sulphide bodies may be up to 60 m thick as at Oktyabr'sky where it cover an area of 3.5 sq km. Grades vary drastically with the sulphide assemblage, but are of the order of 2.8% Ni, 5.6% Cu and 15 g/t PGE. There is evidence that the massive sulphides post date the disseminated sulphides; and

iii). Vein disseminations of 'cupriferous' ore which are found below the massive sulphide, between the massive sulphide and the lower margins of the sill, and within sediments on the upper margin of the sill, often associated with zones of 'skarn' altered brecciated dolerite and marl/argillite. They may be 10 to 20m thick. The main metallic minerals are pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite, cubanite, millerite, pyrite, magnetite, bornite, chalcocite, etc.

The total production + resource in the Noril'sk-Talnakh district are quoted by Naldrett (2004) at:
     1.309 Gt @ 1.77% Ni, 3.57% Cu, 0.061% Co, 9.5 g/t PGE (including 1.84 g/t Pt, 7.31 g/t Pd).

Ore reserve and mineral resources at 31 December, 2011 (Noril'sk Nickel webpage, 2013) were:
  Talnakh proved ore reserves
      Massive sulphide ore - 46.867 Mt @ 2.71% Ni, 3.36% Cu, 5.81 g/t Pd, 1.33 g/t Pt, 0.15 g/t Au, 7.54 g/t 6PGM
      Cuprous ore - 34.468 Mt @ 1.04% Ni, 4.19% Cu, 9.95 g/t Pd, 2.37 g/t Pt, 0.70 g/t Au, 12.44 g/t 6PGM
      Disseminated ore - 40.966 Mt @ 0.45% Ni, 0.79% Cu, 3.49 g/t Pd, 1.29 g/t Pt, 0.19 g/t Au, 4.97 g/t 6PGM
    TOTAL Talnakh proved ore - 122.301 Mt @ 1.48% Ni, 2.73% Cu, 6.20 g/t Pd, 1.61 g/t Pt, 0.32 g/t Au, 8.06 g/t 6PGM
  Talnakh probable ore reserves
      Massive sulphide ore - 79.074 Mt @ 2.55% Ni, 2.69% Cu, 4.84 g/t Pd, 0.89 g/t Pt, 0.14 g/t Au, 6.30 g/t 6PGM
      Cuprous ore - 49.412 Mt @ 0.79% Ni, 3.53% Cu, 7.52 g/t Pd, 1.93 g/t Pt, 0.56 g/t Au, 9.67 g/t 6PGM
      Disseminated ore - 32.996 Mt @ 0.37% Ni, 0.62% Cu, 0.76 g/t Pd, 1.29 g/t Pt, 0.19 g/t Au, 3.47 g/t 6PGM
    TOTAL Talnakh probable ore - 161.482 Mt @ 1.56% Ni, 2.53% Cu, 5.17 g/t Pd, 1.18 g/t Pt, 0.28 g/t Au, 6.75 g/t 6PGM
  Talnakh measured + indicated mineral resources
      Massive sulphide ore - 20.470 Mt @ 4.23% Ni, 5.83% Cu, 12.95 g/t Pd, 2.54 g/t Pt, 0.51 g/t Au, 15.91 g/t 6PGM
      Cuprous ore - 1.505 Mt @ 0.80% Ni, 2.26% Cu, 6.64 g/t Pd, 1.91 g/t Pt, 0.41 g/t Au, 8.74 g/t 6PGM
      Disseminated ore - 1332.722 Mt @ 0.52% Ni, 1.05% Cu, 2.89 g/t Pd, 0.83 g/t Pt, 0.19 g/t Au, 3.89 g/t 6PGM
    TOTAL Talnakh resources - 1354.697 Mt @ 0.57% Ni, 1.12% Cu, 3.04 g/t Pd, 0.86 g/t Pt, 0.19 g/t Au, 4.08 g/t 6PGM
  Noril'sk disseminated ore
      Proved reserves - 32.897 Mt @ 0.34% Ni, 0.48% Cu, 4.03 g/t Pd, 1.64 g/t Pt, 0.17 g/t Au, 5.98 g/t 6PGM
      Probable reserves - 22.306 Mt @ 0.28% Ni, 0.36% Cu, 4.28 g/t Pd, 1.75 g/t Pt, 0.20 g/t Au, 6.37 g/t 6PGM
      Measured + indicated resources - 25.802 Mt @ 0.33% Ni, 0.45% Cu, 4.24 g/t Pd, 1.67 g/t Pt, 0.15 g/t Au, 6.30 g/t 6PGM
  Combined Talnakh and Noril'sk ores
      Proved + probable reserves - 338.986 Mt @ 1.33% Ni, 2.26% Cu, 5.38 g/t Pd, 1.42 g/t Pt, 0.28 g/t Au, 7.12 g/t 6PGM
      Probable reserves - 22.306 Mt @ 0.28% Ni, 0.36% Cu, 4.28 g/t Pd, 1.75 g/t Pt, 0.20 g/t Au, 6.37 g/t 6PGM
      Measured + indicated resources - 1380.499 Mt @ 0.57% Ni, 1.11% Cu, 3.07 g/t Pd, 0.87 g/t Pt, 0.19 g/t Au, 4.12 g/t 6PGM
      Inferred resources - 462.709 Mt @ 0.89% Ni, 1.85% Cu, 4.40 g/t Pd, 1.12 g/t Pt, 0.26 g/t Au, 5.75 g/t 6PGM.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 2000.    
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Arndt N T, Czamanske G K, Walker R J, Chauvel C, Fedorenko V A  2003 - Geochemistry and origin of the intrusive hosts of the Norilsk-Talnakh Cu-Ni-PGE Sulfide deposits: in    Econ. Geol.   v98 pp 495-515
Barnes S J, Kunilov V Y  2000 - Spinels and Mg Ilmenites from the Norilsk 1 and Talnakh intrusions and other mafic rocks of the Siberian flood basalt province: in    Econ. Geol.   v95 pp 1701-1717
Barnes S-J, Cox R A and Zientek M L,  2006 - Platinum-group element, Gold, Silver and Base Metal distribution in compositionally zoned sulfide droplets from the Medvezky Creek Mine, Norilsk, Russia : in    Contrib. to Mineralogy & Petrology   v152 pp 187-200
Barnes, S.J., Malitch, K.N. and Yudovskaya, M.A.,  2020 - Introduction to a Special Issue on the Norilsk-Talnakh Ni-Cu-Platinum Group Element Deposits: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1157-1172.
Begg, G.C., Hronsky, J.A.M., Arndt, N.T., Griffin, W.L., O Reilly, S.Y. and Hayward, N.,  2010 - Lithospheric, Cratonic, and Geodynamic Setting of Ni-Cu-PGE Sulfide Deposits: in    Econ. Geol.   v.105, pp. 1057-1070.
Brovchenko, V.D., Sluzhenikin, S.F., Kovalchuk, E.V., Kovrigina, S.V., Abramova V.D. and Yudovskaya, M.A.,  2020 - Platinum Group Element Enrichment of Natural Quenched Sulfide Solid Solutions, the Norilsk 1 Deposit, Russia: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1343-1361.
Cabri L J, Wilson J M D, Distler V V, Kingston D, Nejedly Z, Sluzheniken S F  2002 - Mineralogical distribution of trace platinum-group elements in the disseminated sulphide ores of Norilsk 1 layered intrusion: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v111 pp B15-B22
Chayka, I.F., Kamenetsky, V.S., Zhitova, L.M., Izokh, A.E., Tolstykh, N.D., Abersteiner, A., Lobastov, B.M. and Yakich, T.Yu.,  2020 - Hybrid Nature of the Platinum Group Element Chromite-Rich Rocks of the Norilsk 1 Intrusion: Genetic Constraints from Cr Spinel and Spinel-Hosted Multiphase Inclusions: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1321-1342.
Distler V V  1994 - Platinum Mineralization of the Norilsk Deposits: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 243-260
Duran, C.J., Barnes, S.-J., Mansur, E.T., Dare, S.A.S., Bedard, L.P. and Sluzhenikin, S.F.,  2020 - Magnetite Chemistry by LA-ICP-MS Records Sulfide Fractional Crystallization in Massive Nickel-Copper-Platinum Group Element Ores from the Norilsk-Talnakh Mining District (Siberia, Russia): Implications for Trace Element Partitioning into Magnetite: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1245-1266.
Fedorenko V A  1994 - Evolution of Magmatism as Reflected in the Volcanic Sequence of the Norilsk Region: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 171-184
Krivolutskaya, N.A., Gongalsky, B.I., Kedrovskaya, T.B., Kubrakova, I.V., Tyutyunnik, O.A., Chikatueva, V.Y., Bychkova, Y.V., Magazina, L., Kovalchuk, E.N., Yakushev, A.I. and Kononkova, N.N.,  2019 - Geology of the western flanks of the Oktyabrskoe deposit, Norilsk district, Russia: evidence of a closed magmatic system: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.54, pp. 611-630.
Kunilov V Ye  1994 - Geology of the Norilsk Region: The History of the Discovery, Prospecting, Exploration and Mining of the Norilsk Deposits: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 203-216
Latyshev, A.V., Radko, V.A., Veselovskiy, R.V., Fetisova, A.M. and Pavlov, V.E.,  2020 - Correlation of the Permian-Triassic Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Norilsk Region with the Volcanic Sequence of the Siberian Traps Based on the Paleomagnetic Data: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1173-1193.
Li C, Ripley E M, Naldrett A J  2003 - Compositional variations of Olivine and Sulfur isotopes in the Norilsk and Talnakh intrusions, Siberia: implications for ore-forming processes in dynamic magma conduits: in    Econ. Geol.   v98 pp 69-86
Li, Chusi, Ripley, E.M. and Naldrett, A.J.,  2009 - A New Genetic Model for The Giant Ni-Cu-PGE Sulfide Deposits Associated with the Siberian Flood Basalts: in    Econ. Geol.   v104 pp 291-301
Lightfoot P C,  2007 - Advances in Ni-Cu-PGE Sulphide Deposit Models and Implications for Exploration Technologies: in Milkereit B, 2007 Proceedings of Exploration 07: Fifth Decennial International Conference on Mineral Exploration Decennial Mineral Exploration Conferences, Toronto, Canada,    pp. 629-646
Lightfoot P C, Naldrett A J, Gorbachev V A, Fedorenko V A Hawkesworth C J, Hergt J, Doherty W  1994 - Chemostratigraphy of Siberian Trap Lavas, Norilsk District, Russia: Implications for the Source of Flood Basalt Magmas and their Associated Ni-Cu Mineralization: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 283-312
Lightfoot, P.C. and Keays, R.R.,  2005 - Siderophile and Chalcophile Metal Variations in Flood Basalts from the Siberian Trap, Norilsk Region: Implications for the Origin of the Ni-Cu-PGE Sulfide Ores: in    Econ. Geol.   v100 pp 439-462
Likhachev A P  1994 - Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Norilsk Region: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 185-202
Malitch, K.N., Belousova, E.A., Griffin, W.L., Martin. L., Badanina, I.Yu. and Sluzhenikin, S.F.,  2020 - Oxygen-Hafnium-Neodymium Isotope Constraints on the Origin of the Talnakh Ultramafic-Mafic Intrusion (Norilsk Province, Russia): in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp.1195-1212.
Mansur, E.T., Barnes, S.-J., Duran, C.J. and Sluzhenikin, S.F.,  2020 - Distribution of chalcophile and platinum-group elements among pyrrhotite, pentlandite, chalcopyrite and cubanite from the Norilsk- Talnakh ores: implications for the formation of platinum-group minerals: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.55, pp. 1215-1232.
Marfin, A.E., Ivanov, A.V., Kamenetsky, V.S., Abersteiner, A., Yakich, T.Yu. and Dudkin, T.V.,  2020 - Contact Metamorphic and Metasomatic Processes at the Kharaelakh Intrusion, Oktyabrsk Deposit, Norilsk-Talnakh Ore District: Application of LA-ICP-MS Dating of Perovskite, Apatite, Garnet, and Titanite: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1213-1226.
Naldrett A J  1999 - World Class Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits: Key Factors in their Genesis: in    Mineralium Deposita   v34 pp 227-240
Naldrett A J  1992 - A model for the Ni-Cu-PGE ores of the Norilsk region and its application to other areas of flood basalt: in    Econ. Geol.   v87 pp 1945-1962
Naldrett A J, Asif M, Gorbachev V A, Kunilov V Ye, Stekhin A I Fedorenko V A, Lightfoot P C  1994 - The Composition of the Ni-Cu Ores of the Oktyabrsky Deposits, Norilsk Region: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 357-372
Naldrett A J, Fedorenko V A, Asif M, Shushen L, Kuniloc V E, Stekhin A I, Lightfoot P C, Gorbachev N S  1996 - Controls on the composition of Ni-Cu Sulfide deposits as illustrated by those at Norilsk, Siberia: in    Econ. Geol.   v 91 pp 751-773
Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C  1999 - Ni-Cu-PGE Deposits of the Norilsk Region, Siberia: Their Formation in Conduits for Flood Basalt Volcanism: in Keays R R, Lesher C M, Lightfoot P C, Farrow C E G, (Eds),  Dynamic Processes in Magmatic Ore Deposits and their Application in Mineral Exploration Geological Association of Canada, Short Course Notes   v13 pp 195-249
Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Fedorenko V, Doherty W, Gorbachev N S  1992 - Geology and geochemistry of intrusions and flood basalts of the Norilsk region, USSR, with implications for the origin of the Ni-Cu ores: in    Econ. Geol.   v87 pp 975-1004
Schoneveld, L., Barnes, S.J., Godel, B., Le Vaillant, M., Yudovskaya, M.A., Kamenetsky, V. and Sluzhenikin, S.F.,  2020 - Oxide-Sulfide-Melt-Bubble Interactions in Spinel-Rich Taxitic Rocks of the Norilsk-Talnakh Intrusions, Polar Siberia: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1305-1320.
Schoneveld, L., Barnes, S.J., Williams, M., Le Vaillant, M. and Paterson, D.,  2020 - Silicate and Oxide Mineral Chemistry and Textures of the Norilsk-Talnakh Ni-Cu-Platinum Group Element Ore-Bearing Intrusions: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1227-1243.
Seltmann, R., Soloviev, R., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E. and Cherkasov, S.,  2010 - Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits: in    Australian J. of Earth Sciences   v.57, pp. 655-706.
Simonov O N, Lulko V A, Amosov Yu N, Salov V M  1994 - Geological Structure of the Norilsk Region: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 161-170
Sluzhenikin, S.F. and Mokhov, A.V.,  2015 - Gold and silver in PGE-Cu-Ni and PGE ores of the Noril'sk deposits, Russia: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.50 pp. 465-492
Sluzhenikin, S.F., Yudovskaya, M.A., Barnes, S.J., Abramova, V.D., Le Vaillant, M., Petrenko, D.B., Grigoreva, A.V. and Brovchenko, V.D.,  2020 - Low-Sulfide Platinum Group Element Ores of the Norilsk-Talnakh Camp: in    Econ. Geol.   v.115, pp. 1267-1303.
Song, X., Wang, Y. and Chen, L.,  2011 - Magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits in magma plumbing systems: Features, formation and exploration: in    Geoscience Frontiers   v.2, pp. 375-384.
Stekhin A I  1994 - Mineralogical and Geochemical Characteristics of the Cu-Ni Ores of the Oktyabrsky and Talnakh Deposits: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 217-230
Torgashin A S  1994 - Geology of the Massive and Copper Ores of the Western Part of the Oktyabrsky Deposit: in Naldrett A J, Lightfoot P C, Sheahan P (Eds),  The Sudbury - Norilsk Symposium Ontario Geological Survey   Special Publication 5 pp 231-241
Wooden J L, Czamanske G K, Bouse R M, Likhachev A P, Kunilov V E, Lyulko V  1992 - Pb isotope data indicate a complex, mantle origin for the Norilsk-Talnakh ores, Siberia: in    Econ. Geol.   v87 pp 1153-1165
Yakubchuk A, Nikishin A  2004 - Norilsk-Talnakh Cu-Ni-PGE deposits: a revised tectonic model: in    Mineralium Deposita   v39 pp 125-142
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Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo takes no responsibility what-so-ever for inaccurate or out of date data, information or interpretations.

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