Flin Flon-Glennie Complex VHMS Deposits
Cu Zn Au Ag
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The Flin Flon-Glennie Complex or Flin Flon Greenstone Belt, extends over a 250 km interval on the southern margin of the Trans-Hudson orogen in northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan, Canada. It hosts clusters of volcanic hosted massive sulphide (VHMS) copper-zinc-gold deposits surrounding Flin Flon, Snow Lake - 120 km to the east of Flin Flon, Hanson Lake - 60 km west of Flin Flon and Sherridon - 65 km NE of Flin Flon. Each of these clusters includes one or more larger deposits and smaller satellites (#Location: Flin Flon - 54° 45' 58"N, 101° 52' 58"W; Chisel Lake - 54° 49' 45"N, 100° 7' 17"W; Hanson Lake - 54° 40' 40"N, 102° 51' 12"W; Sherridon - 55° 8' 12"N, 101° 6' 30"W).
These deposits, which in 1992 had production + reserves totalling >175 Mt of ore from >24 mines, are hosted within the Palaeoproterozoic Flin Flon metavolcanic formation, part of the east-west elongated, 250 x 50 km Flin Flon-Glennie Complex (Ashton, 1999) within the 550 km wide Trans-Hudson orogen. From east to west, the Flin Flon-Glennie Complex comprises the Snow Lake arc assemblage, the Amisk collage (hosting Flin Flon), Hanson Lake block and the Glennie Domain, all of which were amalgamated at ~1.87 to 1.85 Ga by intraoceanic accretion (Lewry and Collerson 1990; Lucas et al., 1996). The Snow Lake and Amisk collage are also referred to as the Flin Flon Greenstone Belt in the literature (e.g., Syme and Bailes, 1993). The Trans-Hudson orogen includes deformed juvenile 1.9 to 1.8 Ga igneous and metasedimentary rocks sandwiched between the Archaean cratonic Hearne-Wyoming-Rae province to the west, and the Superior province to the east (Syme and Bailes, 1993).
The Flin Flon area lies in the concave SE side of the elbow formed by the Trans-Hudson orogen where it changes from a north-south trend below cover in the south, to east-west to the NE, before passing under Hudson's Bay. The Flin Flon-Glennie Complex rocks are in fault/thrust and/or gradational contact with the 1.86–1.84 Ga Kisseynew Domain paragneiss and related granitoid plutons within the Trans Hudson Orogen to the north, which are in turn, bounded to the north by the large Baldock Batholith which envelopes slivers of the 1.92 to 1.88 Ga Palaeoproterozoic La Ronge-Lynn Lake-Partridge Breast-Rusty Lake greenstone belts. This domain, inturn is bounded to the north by the 1.86 to 1.85 Ga Wathaman-Chopewyan batholith. To the south, the The Flin Flon-Glennie Complex is bounded by reworked Archaean rocks of the Superior Boundary Zone, where it is also unconformably overlain by the Interior Platform cover of Ordovician sandstone and dolostones to the south. Greenstones and mafic-ultramafic masses are know to occur for at least 60 km to the south, below the Palaeozoic cover.
The Flin Flon-Glennie Complex comprise a poly-deformed suite of supracrustal and intrusive rocks representing Palaeoproterozoic island-arc setting. Gibson et al. (2011) and sources quoted therein, consider the Flin Flon-Glennie complex to have developed through four main stages: i). formation of juvenile or pericratonic arcs, back-arc basins and ocean plateaux between 1.92 and 1.88 Ga , ii). intra-oceanic accretion of the four main assemblages/domains listed above, from 1.88 to 1.87 Ga iii). post-accretion development of 1.87 to 1.84 Ga successor arc intrusions and inter-arc basins, and iv). terminal collision stage with the Superior Craton between 1.84 and 1.80 Ga (Bleeker 1990; Ellis and Beaumont 1999; Ashton et al., 2005). This progression amalgamated tectono-stratigraphic assemblages, including juvenile arc, back-arc, ocean-floor, ocean-island and evolved volcanic arc successions to form an accretionary collage prior to the emplacement of voluminous intermediate to granitoid plutons, and mostly subsequent deformation (Syme et al., 1998).
In the Flin Flon district, the main volcanic unit is the 1925 to 1886 Ma Amisk Group collage, which is subdivided into a number of distinct juvenile arc and oceanic assemblages, all separated by faults and shear zones. These includes mostly sub-aqueous arc tholeiite, back arc-ocean floor, and shoshonitic assemblages, with intercalated volcanogenic sedimentary rocks, intruded by 1889 to 1886 Ma syn-volcanic intrusions and later, dominant 1860 to 1830 Ma calc-alkaline plutons. The younger plutons and coeval successor arc volcanics, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary basin rocks include the largely marine turbidites of the 1.85 to 1.84 Ga Burntwood Group and the overlying alluvial-fluvial molasse to continental quartzo-feldspathic sandstone and conglomerate and intercalated volcanic rocks of the 1832 Ma Missi Group, both of which unconformably overlie the Amisk Group (Pearson et al., 2012). Intrusions within the Flin Flon district are divided into those that are i). pre-tectonic and coeval with the volcanic rocks, crosscutting volcanic and Missi supracrustal rocks, as well as ii). syn- and iii). late tectonic varieties. Numerous mafic to ultramafic dykes intrude the volcanic rocks (Pearson et al., 2012).
Five phases of deformation are recognised, one of which predates the Missi Group. Regional metamorphism increases towards the north, with peak metamorphism at 1815 Ma. At Flin Flon, the bulk of the rocks have been subjected to greenschist facies metamorphism, although they vary from prehnite-pumpellyite to amphibole grade. A dominant north to NE-trending set of predominantly post-metamorphic vertical brittle faults and shear zones control the distribution of the main rock types, dividing the supracrustal terrane into 17 distinct blocks. Stratigraphy cannot be correlated across these fault-block margins.
In the Flin Flon district these volcanic assemblages are structurally juxtaposed in a tectonic collage. Virtually all of the VHMS deposits at Flin Flon are associated with the arc tholeiite assemblage and occur in complex stratigraphic sequences which represent volcanic edifices and associated intravolcanic basins within the former magmatic arc. Regional metamorphism from 1.82 to 1.81 Ga formed mineral assemblages that range from prehnite-pumpellyite to middle amphibolite facies in the east and upper amphibolite facies in the north and west (David et al., 1996; Froese and Moore, 1980; Syme et al., 1998).
The VHMS deposits in the Flin Flon district are associated with felsic volcanic units within the tholeiite assemblage, and at major stratigraphic and compositional breaks in the volcanic sequence. The breaks are recognised by contrasting major and trace element chemistry, and the isotopic characteristics of the mafic rocks on either side of the break. These deposits occur within complex stratigraphic sequences which represent volcanic constructs and associated intravolcanic basins within the former magmatic arc. Most of the deposits are underlain by coarse, mafic, intermediate or felsic volcaniclastic rocks. Only a few, small, Cu-rich massive sulphide deposits are found in back-arc or ocean-floor basalts within the Flin Flon belt. These VHMS deposits can be broadly subdivided into two types: i). those hosted directly by felsic fragmental volcanic rocks, with underlying, disconformable hydrothermal alteration zones e.g., the Flin Flon, Schist Lake, Mandy, Centennial and Trout Lake mines, and ii). those hosted by fine-grained graphitic sedimentary rocks (mostly mudstones) within the volcanic succession, lacking associated footwall alteration zones e.g., the Cuprus, White Lake, and possibly Westarm mines (Syme and Bailes, 1993).
The Snow Lake assemblage, hosting the cluster of VHMS deposits, is situated between the east end of the Amisk collage and the Superior Craton, and comprises remnants of a ~1.89 Ga oceanic arc volcano-plutonic complex (e.g. Galley et al., 1986; Lucas et al., 1994; Bailes and Galley, 1999), that may have evolved on the outboard margin of the Superior Craton. It appears to have followed an independent evolution from the remainder of the Flin Flon-Glennie Complex prior to terminal collision (Percival et al., 2006; Corrigan et al., 2007). It comprises a 20 km wide by 6 km thick succession that reflects a temporal evolution in geodynamic setting from 'primitive arc' (Anderson sequence in the south) to 'mature arc' (Chisel sequence) to 'arc-rift' (Snow Creek sequence in the northeast). The lowermost Anderson sequence is a bimodal mafic-felsic succession dominated by flows, whilst the Chisel sequence, is dominated by volcaniclastic rocks of highly variable composition and lesser lavas, and the uppermost Snow Creek sequence is composed almost entirely of pillowed basalt.
Galley et al. (1993) divided the Amisk Group volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Snow Lake assemblage into five depositional phases: i). the first phase is dominated by mafic volcanism and includes basalt and basaltic andesite; ii). the second phase starts with the deposition of felsic breccia followed by rhyolite and basalt extrusion, and terminates with the deposition of mafic wacke and breccia; iii). the third phase consists of aphyric basalt and breccia at the base, overlain by the Powderhouse feldspar-phyric dacite and the Chisel and Ghost Lake rhyolite units at the end of the cycle; iv). the fourth depositional phase comprises mafic basalt, wacke and breccia, topped by felsic volcanic rocks. Deposits such as the Chisel, Chisel North and Lalor deposits occurs at the contact between felsic volcanic and associated volcaniclastic rocks of the third depositional phase and mafic volcanic and reworked volcaniclastic rocks of the fourth phase (Galley et al., 1993); vi). the last depositional cycle consists mostly of pillowed aphyric basalt.
It is likely that the first and second phases represent the Anderson sequence, the third and fourth phases the mature Chisel sequence and the final phase the Snow Creek sequence.
Four deformation events have been recognised in the Chisel-Anderson lakes area. D1 and D2, characterised by tight isoclinal folding and associated low angle 'thrust' faults, are interpreted to result from the southwest tectonic transport of rocks from the Kisseynew Domain over the Flin Flon Domain (Krause and Williams, 1999). The D3 event, largely manifested by upright, open to closed F3 folds and associated, steeply dipping faults is interpreted to result from NW-SE transpressional shortening that accompanied syn- to post-peak regional metamorphism (Connors et al., 1999). D4 structures are east-trending open upright folds that overprint F3 folds (Connors, 1996; Krause and Williams, 1998).
VHMS deposits in the Snow Lake district are of two distinct types: i). Cu-Zn rich (Cu-Zn, Cu-Zn-Au) deposits, largely restricted to the Anderson sequence, almost entirely, within the Anderson-Stall and Daly rhyolite complexes, with all of the past-producing deposits in the former; and ii). Zn-Cu rich (Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag) types, hosted by the Chisel sequence, ~2 km stratigraphically above its base and at the contact between the Lower and Upper parts of the Chisel sequence. The Chisel sequence hosts the Chisel, Ghost, Chisel North and Lalor deposits and typically contains thin and discontinuous volcaniclastic deposits and intermediate to felsic flow-dome complexes. This sequence is lithologically diverse, with rapid lateral facies variations and abundant volcaniclastic rocks. Mafic and felsic flows have evolved geochemical characteristics relative to the un-evolved underlying Anderson sequence (Schwartz et al., 2012). This eastern part of the Flin Flon belt is dominated by fold-thrust style tectonics that is in contrast western and central portions of the belt. This domain comprises a south-verging, NE dipping imbricate, thrust over the previously amalgamated collage of oceanic and arc rocks to the west (Bailes and Galley, 1999). By 1.82 to 1.81Ga, the thrust package had been modified by regional metamorphism to a lower to middle almandine-amphibolite facies mineral assemblages (David et al., 1996; Froese and Moore, 1980).
The Hanson Lake Block, is bound to the east by the Sturgeon-Weir Shear Zone and to the west by the Tabbernor Fault Zone. It extends an unknown distance to the south beneath a nearly flat lying Ordovician cover sequence of sandstones of the Winnipeg Formation, and dolomites of the Red River Formation. To the north, the block is bound by the gneissic metasedimentary Kisseynew Domain and the Attitti Complex. The east end of the block hosts the Hanson Lake Pluton, a large compositionally variable granodiorite to pyroxenite intrusion.
The exposed Palaeoproterozoic rocks are dominated by juvenile island arc, felsic to intermediate metavolcanic rocks, with subordinate amounts of mafic volcanics, minor intermediate volcanics, and greywackes. Oxide facies iron formations, reflected by long continuous magnetic trends, and locally confirmed by drilling, suggest that the distribution of iron formations is very wide spread. The sequence has been intruded by various felsic intrusions, some of which are believed to be subvolcanic intrusions. Abundant diorite and gabbro plugs and dykes cut the sequence, as well as minor ultramafic intrusions (Koziol et al., 1991). The supracrustal rocks generally dip moderately to steeply east to NE.
At least two distinct folding events, both having northerly trending fold axes. The structural fabric is dominated by a north to NW-SE trending, upright regional transposition foliation. A protracted D2 structural event resulted in tight to isoclinal, southwest plunging F2 folds and local southwest verging mylonite zones. D3 deformation resulted in tight north trending folds followed by a brittle D4 event characterised by north-south trending faults. Peak regional metamorphism reached upper amphibolite facies as observed by the partial melting of the granodiorite-tonalite assemblage in the Jackpine and Tulabi Lake areas, although in the vicinity of the McIlvenna Bay and Hansons Lake deposit, the host sequence exhibits a greenschist metamorphic facies characterised by sericite and chlorite, probably due to a retrograde event after a previous amphibolite grade since relict cordierite, anthophyllite, garnet and andalusite are commonly observed in the VMS alteration package (Lemaitre, 2000). U-Pb ages of supracrustal rocks in the block constrain the metamorphic event between 1808 and 1804 Ma (Maxeiner et al., 1999). U-Pb age dating of a quartz-feldspar porphyry (a possible subvolcanic intrusion) which intruded the supracrustal sequence yielded a date of 1888±12 Ma (Rennie 2011, after Cook and Moore, 2006).
The Sherridon District, lies within the Kisseynew Domain to the north of the main Flin Flon-Glennie Complex, but is hosted by that metamorphic rocks that are interpreted to be formed from the Amisk Group and overlying Missi Group described above. The southern margin of the Kisseynew Domain is ~15 km to the south of the Sherridon deposit and is marked by the biotite-sillimanite-almandine isograd. The rocks of the Kisseynew Domain in the Sherridon are divided into the Nokomis and Sherridon Groups, correlated with the Amisk and Missi groups respectively of the Flin Flon Greenstone Belt. However, the rocks of the Nokomis Group appear to be dominantly of sedimentary origin, with lesser volcanic components, suggesting a northward facies transition from volcanic arc to sedimentary basin (Froese and Goetz, 1980).
The Nokomis Group consists of grey, medium-grained, quartz-plagioclase-biotite paragneisses and their granitised equivalents, migmatites and granitoid gneisses. The presence of cordierite and sillimanite in some layers suggests pelitic compositions, and hence, the group has been correlated with the greywacke-shale sequence of the Amisk Group (Bailes, 1971). On the basis of their geochemistry, amphibolites layers are interpreted to be derived from lime rich sediments rather than mafic volcanic protoliths.
The sequence within the Sherridon Group which hosts the Sherridon deposits, is as follows (after Froese and Goetz, 1980), from the base:
i). calc-silicate gneiss - layered, fine to medium grained rock containing quartz, andesine-labradorite and hornblende, with bands of K feldspar, biotite, scapolite, diopside and calcite.
ii). fine to medium grained, quartz-rich gneiss, composed of quartz, oligoclase-andesine, microcline, biotite and almandine. This unit also contains lenses of pelitic schists (fine to medium grained quartz, oligoclase-andesine, biotite, almandine, sillimanite and locally cordierite), calc-silicates and both layered and massive amphibolite. Copper-zinc sulphides are found along two stratigraphic horizons within this unit, in quartz-rich gneisses. These horizons are marked by discontinuous lenses of massive sulphides and intermittent zones of disseminated sulphides. Locally, sulphide mineralisation is associated with cordierite-anthophyllite rocks.
iii). impure marble and calc-silicate gneiss of the type described for the basal unit.
iv). well foliated, fine grained biotite-garnet schist.
v). upper quartz-rich gneiss, similar to the base lithology in the second unit.
The Sherridon Group was intruded by massive to weakly foliated, medium grained gabbro, pyroxenite, medium grained granodiorite and pegmatites.
In the vicinity of the Sherridon deposit, the Sherridon Group defines a crescent shaped, 15 x 5 km, basinal structure, surrounded by Nokomis Group rocks. Three episodes of folding are recognised. F1 is represented by small isoclinal folds in the foliation plane, followed by F2 recumbent folding with axial planes dipping north, and F3 folds with axial planes trending northwesterly.
Metamorphic mineral assemblages probably developed during D1 but continued to recrystallise during D2 and D3. Most Nokomis gneisses have been partially melted, and large parts of them have been converted to migmatites and granitoid gneisses. There is also evidence of incipient melting in Sherridon Group gneisses. Retrograde metamorphism is common, with feldspars altered to sericite and epidote and ferromagnesian minerals to chlorite and prehnite. Otherwise, overall, the grade of metamorphism is uniform throughout.
Key deposits within each of these districts are described in separate records within the database - see the Flin Flon, Snow Lake district, Hanson Lake and Sherridon records. See also the Ruttan record for the Ruttan deposit in the similar age Rusty Lake volcanic belt of the Lynn Lake-Partridge Breast-Rusty Lake string of greenstone belts further to the north in the same section of the Trans-Hudson orogen.
Reserve + production figures for the main deposits of the VHMS deposits of the Flin Flon-Glennie Complex include (after Gibson et al., 2011, except where indicated otherwise):
Flin Flon district
• Flin Flon - 62.485 Mt @ 2.21% Cu, 4.11% Zn, 2.72 g/t Au, 41.28 g/t Ag,
• 777 - 21.904 Mt @ 2.59% Cu, 4.39% Zn, 2.12 g/t Au, 26.94 g/t Ag, - 1.2 km NE of Flin Flon,
12.12 Mt @ 2.56% Cu, 5.19% Zn, 32.68 g/t Ag, 2.29 g/t Au (Measured + indicated resource, Pearson et al., 2012)
0.569 Mt @ 1.75% Cu, 6.80% Zn, 49.11 g/t Ag, 2.31 g/t Au (Inferred resource, Pearson et al., 2012)
• Trout Lake - 21.612 Mt @ 1.74% Cu, 4.97% Zn, 1.56 g/t Au, 16.02 g/t Ag, - 7 km NNE of Flin Flon,
• Callinan - 7.774 Mt @ 1.36% Cu, 4% Zn, 2.06 g/t Au, 24.63 g/t Ag, - 2.5 km NNE of Flin Flon,
2.174 Mt @ 2.56% Cu, 1.20% Zn, 29.30 g/t Ag, 1.91 g/t Au (Measured + indicated resource, Pearson et al., 2012)
0.615 Mt @ 1.13% Cu, 4.23% Zn, 29.97 g/t Ag, 1.64 g/t Au (Inferred resource, Pearson et al., 2012)
• Centennial - 2.366 Mt @ 1.56% Cu, 2.2% Zn, 1.51 g/t Au, 26.4 g/t Ag, - 16.5 km SE of Flin Flon,
• Schist Lake - 1.847 Mt @ 4.3% Cu, 7.27% Zn, 1.3 g/t Au, 37.03 g/t Ag, - 6.5 km SSE of Flin Flon,
• Konuto - 1.646 Mt @ 4.2% Cu, 1.63% Zn, 1.99 g/t Au, 8.91 g/t Ag, - 16 km SW of Flin Flon,
• Westarm - 1.394 Mt @ 3.21% Cu, 1.48% Zn, 1.56 g/t Au, 17.49 g/t Ag, - 13 km south to SSE of Flin Flon,
• Coronation - 1.282 Mt @ 4.25% Cu, 0.24% Zn, 2.06 g/t Au, 5.14 g/t Ag, - 23 km SSW of Flin Flon,
• Mandy - 0.125 Mt @ 8.22% Cu, 11.38% Zn, 3.02 g/t Au, 60.15 g/t Ag, - 6 km SSE of Flin Flon,
• White Lake - 0.849 Mt @ 1.98% Cu, 4.64% Zn, 0.72 g/t Au, 27.1 g/t Ag, - 12.5 km SE of Flin Flon,
• Cuprus - 0.462 Mt @ 3.25% Cu, 6.4% Zn, 1.3 g/t Au, 28.8 g/t Ag, - 12 km SE of Flin Flon,
• Birch Lake - 0.273 Mt @ 6.21% Cu, 0.1 g/t Au, 4.11 g/t Ag, - 16 km SW of Flin Flon,
• Flexar - 0.306 Mt @ 3.76% Cu, 0.5% Zn, 1.3 g/t Au, 6.51 g/t Ag, - 15 km SW of Flin Flon,
• North Star - 0.241 Mt @ 6.11% Cu, 0.34 g/t Au, 0.57 g/t Ag, - 20 km east of Flin Flon,
• Don Jon - 0.079 Mt @ 3.09% Cu, 0.01% Zn, 0.96 g/t Au, 15.09 g/t Ag, - 20 km east of Flin Flon,
Snow Lake district - 120 km east of Flin Flon
• Chisel Lake - 7.154 Mt @ 0.54% Cu, 10.6% Zn, 1.76 g/t Au, 44.76 g/t Ag,
• Chisel North - 2.606 Mt @ 0.21% Cu, 9.49% Zn, 0.58 g/t Au, 21.43 g/t Ag, - 2.5 km NNE of Chisel Lake
• Chisel Open-pit - 1.0 Mt @ 0.25% Cu, 8.5% Zn, 2.74 g/t Au, 54.86 g/t Ag, (Syme and Bailes, 1993), ~0.5 km S of Chisel Lake
• Ghost & Lost - 0.581 Mt @ 1.34% Cu, 8.6% Zn, 1.2 g/t Au, 39.09 g/t Ag, - ~1 km ESE of Chisel Lake
• Lalor - 14.048 Mt @ 0.71% Cu, 8.96% Zn, 1.79 g/t Au, 27.49 g/t Ag, (indicated resource, Schwartz et al., 2012) - 10 km N of Chisel Lake
2.729 Mt @ 0.39% Cu, 0.43% Zn, 4.31 g/t Au, 22.27 g/t Ag, (indicated Au resource, Schwartz et al., 2012)
3.817 Mt @ 0.60% Cu, 9.09% Zn, 1.20 g/t Au, 22.15 g/t Ag, (inferred Cu-Zn resource, Schwartz et al., 2012)
7.338 Mt @ 0.41% Cu, 0.32% Zn, 4.64 g/t Au, 31.35 g/t Ag, (inferred Au resource, Schwartz et al., 2012)
1.461 Mt @ 4.15% Cu, 0.31% Zn, 6.80 g/t Au, 20.33 g/t Ag, (inferred Cu-Au resource, Schwartz et al., 2012)
• Stall Lake - 6.381 Mt @ 4.41% Cu, 0.5% Zn, 1.41 g/t Au, 12.34 g/t Ag, - 3 km east to ENE of Chisel Lake
• Rod - 0.735 Mt @ 6.63% Cu, 2.9% Zn, 1.71 g/t Au, 16.11 g/t Ag,
• Osborne Lake - 2.807 Mt @ 3.14% Cu, 1.5% Zn, 0.27 g/t Au, 4.11 g/t Ag, - 29 km east to ENE of Chisel Lake
• Anderson Lake - 2.510 Mt @ 3.4% Cu, 0.1% Zn, 0.62 g/t Au, 7.54 g/t Ag, - 9 km ENE of Chisel Lake
• Spruce Point - 1.865 Mt @ 2.06% Cu, 2.4% Zn, 1.68 g/t Au, 19.54 g/t Ag, - 35 km east to SW to SSW of Chisel Lake
• Reed - 7.154 Mt @ 0.54% Cu, 10.6% Zn, 1.76 g/t Au, 44.76 g/t Ag, (Indicated resource, VMS Ventures, 2012) - 60 km SW of Snow Lake
0.170 Mt @ 4.26% Cu, 0.52% Zn, 0.38 g/t Au 4.55 g/t Ag (Inferred resource, VMS Ventures Inc., 2012)
• Dickstone - 1.077 Mt @ 3.91% Cu, 2.15% Zn, 1.56 g/t Au, 9.49 g/t Ag, - 25 km west of Chisel Lake
• Snow Lake/New Britannia - 11.176 Mt @ 4.8 g/t Au, (Cumulative production, Genivar, 2010), - 8 km NE of Chisel Lake
5.471 Mt @ 4.14 g/t Au, (Measured+indicated resource, Genivar, 2010)
2.367 Mt @ 4.43 g/t Au, (Inferred resource, Genivar, 2010).
Sherridon district - 65 km NE of Flin Flon
• Sherridon - 7.739 Mt @ 2.37% Cu, 2.28% Zn, 0.63 g/t Au, 18.96 g/t Ag,
• Bob Lake 2.42 Mt @ 1.33% Cu, 1.18% Zn,
• Jungle Lake 3.76 Mt @ 1.42% Cu, 1.1% Zn,
Hanson Lake district - 60 km west of Flin Flon
• Hanson Lake - 0.147 Mt @ 0.51% Cu, 9.99% Zn, 1.09 g/t Au, 137.14 g/t Ag,
• McIlvenna Bay - 13.900 Mt @ 1.28% Cu, 2.67% Zn, 0.49 g/t Au, 17 g/t Ag, (Indicated resource, January 2013, Foran Mining, 2014)
11.311 Mt @ 1.32% Cu, 2.97% Zn, 0.43 g/t Au, 17 g/t Ag, (Inferred resource, January 2013, Foran Mining, 2014)
Much of this summary is drawn from "Gibson, H., Pehrsson, S., Lafrance, B., DeWolfe, M., Syme, R., Bailes, A., Gilmore, K., Devine C.. Simard, R-L., MacLachlan, K. and Pearson B., 2014 - The Volcanological and Structural Evolution of the Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon and Snow Lake Mining Districts; Field Trip 3B: Joint Annual Meeting, Geological Association of Canada-Mineralogical Association of Canada, Society of Economic Geologists, Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, Ottawa 2011; Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7116."
The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 2012.
Record last updated: 13/11/2014
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd. Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.
References to this deposit in the PGC Literature Collection:
Ames, D.E., Galley, A.G., Kjarsgaard, I.M., Tardif, N. and Taylor, B. T., 2016 - Hanging-Wall Vectoring for Buried Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits, Paleoproterozoic Flin Flon Mining Camp, Manitoba, Canada: in Econ. Geol. v.111, pp. 963-1000|
Bleeker W 1990 - Thompson Area - General Geology and Ore Deposits: in Galley A G, Bailes A H, Syme E C, Bleeker W, Macek J J, Gordon T S, (Eds), Geology & Mineral Deposits of the Flin Flon and Thompson Belts, Manitoba, International Association on the Genesis of Ore Deposits Guide Book No. 10 Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 2165 pp 93-136|
Cole E M, Gibson H L and Lafrance B, 2007 - Preliminary description of the lithofacies and structure of the Schist Lake mine area, Flin Flon, Manitoba (part of NTS 63K12): in Report of Activities 2007, Manitoba Geological Survey Manitoba Science, Technology, Energy and Mines, GS-3 pp. 33-42|
Galley A G, et. al., 1990 - Introduction: in Galley A G, Bailes A H, Syme E C, Bleeker W, Macek J J, Gordon T S, (Eds), Geology & Mineral Deposits of the Flin Flon and Thompson Belts, Manitoba, International Association on the Genesis of Ore Deposits Guide Book No. 10 Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 2165 pp 1-5|
Lafrance, B., Gibson, H.L., Pehrsson, S., Schetselaar, E., DeWolfe, Y.M. and Lewis, D., 2016 - Structural Reconstruction of the Flin Flon Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Mining District, Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada: in Econ. Geol. v.111, pp. 849-875|
Schetselaar, E., Pehrsson, S., Devine, C., Lafrance, B., White, D. and Malinowski, M., 2016 - 3-D Geologic Modeling in the Flin Flon Mining District, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Canada: Evidence for Polyphase Imbrication of the Flin Flon-777-Callinan Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Ore System: in Econ. Geol. v.111, pp. 877-901|
Syme E C, Bailes A H 1993 - Stratigraphic and tectonic setting of early Proterozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, Flin Flon, Manitoba: in Econ. Geol. v88 pp 566-589|
Whalen, J.J.B., Pehrsson, S.J. and Rayner, N.M., 2016 - Significance of Pre-1860 Ma Granitoid Magmatism for Crustal Evolution and Exploration Targeting in the Flin Flon Assemblage, Trans-Hudson Orogen, Canada: in Econ. Geol. v.111, pp. 1021-1039|
White, D.J., Malinowski, M., Devine, C., Gilmore, K., Schetselaar, E. and Pehrsson, S., 2016 - Drill Targeting with 3-D Seismics for Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Exploration in the Flin Flon Mining Camp: in Econ. Geol. v.111, pp. 903-912,|
White, D.J., Mwenifumbo, C. J. and Salisbury, M.H., 2016 - Seismic Properties of Rocks from the Flin Flon Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Camp: in Econ. Geol. v.111, pp. 913-931|
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