Bushveld Complex - Overview of Teconics, Geology and Mineralisation

South Africa

Main commodities: PGE PGM Pd Pt Cr Ni Cu V Fe
Our International
Study Tour Series
The last tour was
OzGold 2019
Our Global Perspective
Series books include:
Click Here
Super Porphyry Cu and Au

Click Here
IOCG Deposits - 70 papers
All available as eBOOKS
Remaining HARD COPIES on
sale. No hard copy book more than  AUD $44.00 (incl. GST)
Big discount all books !!!

The composite Rooiberg-Bushveld Complex is located in northern South Africa to the north of Johannesburg and Pretoria,

The complex was emplaced into and over the Mesoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic Kaapvaal craton, close to its northern margin, at 2.05 Ga.

The Kaapvaal craton comprises a Palaeo- to Mesoarchaean granite-greenstone basement, overlain by a thick stratified pile of late Mesoarchaean to early Palaeoproterozoic mafic volcanic and intracratonic sedimentary rocks. These include the ~8 km thick clastic successions of the Mesoarchaean Dominion Group and Witwatersrand Supergroup, the ~5 km of mafic volcanic rocks that constitute the Neoarchaean Ventersdorp Supergroup and the 15 km late Neoarchaean to early Palaeoproterozoic (2.64 to 2.05 Ga), Transvaal Supergroup, composed of intracratonic clastic, chemical (BIFs) and carbonatic sedimentary and lesser volcanic rocks. This pile remained relatively undeformed, because by the late Mesoarchaean, the craton was sufficiently rigid (stabilised) to retard the development of the unstable granite-greenstone tectonics seen at the same period on many other cratonic nuclei (Eglington and Armstrong, 2004).

The Transvaal Supergroup is unconformably overlain by the Rooiberg Group (sometimes included as the uppermost volcanic unit of the Transvaal Supergroup; e.g., Button, 1986). This group is almost entirely composed of volcanic rocks that total up to 3.5 km in thickness and are preserved over >50 000 km2, although they are estimated to have originally covered an oval-shaped 450 x 350 km (>110 000 km2) area (Kinnaird, 2005). The Rooiberg Group occurs directly over the centre of, and forms the intruded roof to the Bushveld Complex. It has been subdivided into four parts, as follows:
i). Dullstroom Formation, comprising at least three compositional groups, low- and high-Ti mafic to intermediate units, and high-Mg felsic units;
ii). Damwal Formation, marking the last high-Mg felsites and the first sedimentary intercalations and pyroclastics, accompanied by high-Fe, Ti, P volcanics, overlain by dacites and rhyolites;
iii). and iv). Kwaggasnek and Schrikkloof Formations, dominated by dacitic pyroclastics, rare rhyolites flows and intercalated sedimentary horizons. Precise U-Pb zircon dating of Kwaggasnek Formation felsites gives an age of 2059.9±1 Ma, consistently younger than the main layered mafic stage of the Bushveld Complex (zircons from the Merensky Reef and from late stage pegmatoids give ages of 2055.3±1.2 Ma and 2056.3±0.7 Ma respectively; Armstrong et al., 2010). The Rooiberg Group is conformably overlain by the Loskop formation clastic sediments with minor volcanic intercalations. Clastic sediments in this latter unit include eroded clasts of the main mafic stage of the Bushveld Complex (Schweitzer et al., 1995; Kinnaird, 2005).

Widespread, but not voluminous, 2061.8±5.5 Ma granophyre masses of the Rashoop Granophyre Suite are found below the Rooiberg Group, but above the layered mafic phases of the Bushveld complex which it predates (Kinnaird, 2005).

The main mafic to ultramafic phase of the Bushveld Complex, the 7 to 8 km thick Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS), was emplaced as a series of sub-concordant sills along the unconformable contact between the top of the Transvaal Supergroup and the base of the Rooiberg Group, with the floor being the upper sections of the Pretoria Group. The RLS dips to the north, and covers an area of ~65 000 km
2, elongated east-west parallel to the margin of the craton. It was formed in five chambers that were most likely connected with each other and with a sixth at depth. The RLS was fed by repeated injections of magma from depth, changing composition with time, and has a complex-wide "stratigraphic layering", including, from the base, the:
The Rustenburg Layered Suite has been subdivided as follows, from the base:
Marginal Zone - composed several hundreds of metres of quenched to fine-grained norite and gabbronorite with variable proportions of accessory clinopyroxene, quartz, biotite and hornblende, indicating magma contamination from the underlying metasediments. This unit is not always present.
Lower Zone - predominantly consists of interlayered harzburgite, dunite and orthopyroxenite, with rare plagioclase present as a cumulate phase (Cameron 1978; Teigler and Eales 1996). Chromite comprises <1 modal %, irrespective of lithology. It has pronounced lateral variation in thickness and lithology and may be >1 km thick in some trough structures, but it is thinner or absent above swells between those troughs (Grobler, et al., 2019).
Critical Zone, which is up to 1400 m thick and subdivided into lower and upper zones.
  The Lower Critical Zone is 700 to 800 m thick, and is predominantly composed of orthopyroxenite, containing nine major chromitite seams (Lower Group/LG 1 to 7 and Middle Group/MG 1 and 2). The seams have been correlated, across much of the Western and Eastern Bushveld Complex (Cousins and Feringa 1964; Teigler and Eales 1996), although their thicknesses are highly variable. The base of the Lower Critical Zone has been defined either where there is a significant increase in intercumulus plagioclase (from 2 to 6 %; Cameron 1978), or ~ 200 m lower, at the top of the main olivine-rich interval (Teigler and Eales 1996).
  Upper Critical Zone is ~500 m thick, and is defined by the first occurrence of anorthosite which forms a laterally continuous, 1 to 3 m thick layer. Whilst further anorthosite layers are found in the upper portion of the zone, the dominant lithologies are orthopyroxenite (~70 %) and norite (~25 %) (Teigler and Eales 1996). Olivine-bearing harzburgite and troctolite comprise <1% of the zone and are largely restricted to the northwestern Bushveld (Viljoen et al., 1986; Eales et al., 1988; Maier and Eales 1997) where they form part of the Merensky and Pseudo Reefs. These reefs are composed of tens of cm to metre thick coarse-grained to pegmatoidal orthocumulate layers. As well as abundant disseminated chromite, the Upper Critical Zone contains four to five major chromitite seams, including Middle Group/MG 3 and 4 and Upper Group/UG 1 to 3, and tens of minor seams and stringers including those bracketing the Merensky Reef pegmatoid. The so-called cyclic units are particularly typical of the Upper Critical Zone (Cameron 1982; Eales et al., 1986, 1988, 1990). These are generally characterised by basal chromitite, overlain by harzburgite and/or pyroxenite, norite and then anorthosite. The thicknesses of the units range between a few cm to several hundred metres (Eales et al., 1990). PGE mineralisation can be concentrated in the basal ultramafic portions of many of these cyclic units, particularly in the Merensky Reef and UG2 (Upper Group 2) chromitite, the main PGE reefs in the Bushveld Complex, as well as the subeconomic Pseudo and Bastard reefs. The Merensky Reef and UG2 reefs range on average from 0.4 to 1.5 m in thickness with contained PGE (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au) contents typically ranging from 4 to 10 g/t (Cawthorn, 2005)
Main Zone, which is up to 2800 m this, and is predominantly composed of fairly massive norite and gabbronorite, typically containing 10 to 30% orthopyroxene, 10 to 20 % clinopyroxene and ~50% plagioclase, with occasional anorthosite and pyroxenite bands. Distinct visible layering is rare.
Upper Zone, which is 1 to 2 km thick, and is composed of cyclic units of magnetitite, gabbronorite, anorthosite and, in the uppermost portions of the sequence, ferrodiorite (Molyneux 1970; Von Gruenewaldt 1970). As many as 26 magnetite layers are known on the eastern and western limbs (Cawthorn and Molyneux 1986; Tegner et al., 2006), each from a few cm to >10 m thick (e.g., magnetite layer 21).

The Rustenburg Layered Suite occurs in five discrete lobes or limbs, namely the:
i). Western Limb/Lobe, which extends from near Pretoria westwards to Rustenburg and around the Pilanesberg alkaline complex, to and along the southern flank of the Makoppa Dome of the Archaean granitiods and gneisses;
ii). South-eastern or Bethal Lobe, which is largely covered by Mesozoic rocks;
iii). Eastern Lobe, that extends in a northwards arc west of Belfast up to Atok;
iv). Far Western Lobe to the west of the Western Lobe. v). Northern Lobe that extends from south of Mokopane to Villa Nora in the north. This lobe is separated from the rest of the Complex by the regional Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament, and is characterised by a reduced stratigraphic succession within the Rustenburg Layered Suite. For detail, see the geological description in the Platreef/Flatreef record.

In the eastern limb of the complex, the Upper Zone of the RLS is characterised by banded gabbros with up to 25 layers of cumulate, massive and net-textured, titaniferous and vanadiferous magnetite, the thickest being 7 m, while the most consistent averages 2 m. Each layer has a sharp base and gradational upper margin (Kinnaird, 2005; Cawthorn and Molyneux, 1986). Sections of the Upper zone are also cut by magnetite breccia pipes of similar composition to the layers, reflecting upward expulsion of magnetite from the cumulate layers (Cawthorn and Molyneux, 1986).

The final phase of the Bushveld Complex is the 1.5 to 3.5 km thick, sheeted Lebowa Granite Suite (LGS) that has an areal extent of 30 000 km
2, and with ages of 2054±2 Ma (Armstrong et al., 2010) postdates the RLS. The granite underlies the older, less dense Rooiberg Group and Rashoop Granophyre Suite, but overlies the denser RLS, through which feeder dykes are mapped. Wilson et al. (2000) suggest foliations and lineations are horizontal, reflecting vertical host-rock compression and horizontal magma flow during emplacement, with space being created for the granites by roof uplift and floor depression. They are predominantly alkali feldspar granites with iron-rich ferromagnesian minerals and have been categorised as A-type (Kleeman and Twist, 1989).

Bushveld Complex

All of the data available suggests the whole complex, including the Rooiberg Group volcanic rocks, associated granophyres, A-type granites of the LGS, and the layered ultramafic complex of the RLS, was emplaced over a period of only 3 to 5 m.y. (Kinnaird, 2005; Armstrong et al., 2010). Kinnaird, 2005 discusses a range of opinion on the formation of the Bushveld Complex, but favours the Kaapvaal craton having undergone northeast-southwest extension and strike-slip reactivation. This is suggested by the lack of pre-Bushveld deformation of the Transvaal Supergroup and its preservation over large parts of the craton, as well as the generation of A-type granites, usually associated with crustal extension. In addition, the preservation of the volcanic and shallow-level intrusive rocks of the Bushveld Complex indicates that the significant magmatic thickening related to the Bushveld event must have been compensated by coeval crustal thinning (Gibson and Stevens, 1998). However, as Late Proterozoic to Cretaceous diamondiferous kimberlites in the adjacent Kaapvaal contain a ~3.1 Ga diamond population (Richardson et al., 1984; Shirey et al., 2003), a lithospheric root in excess of 140 km must have existed beneath the craton in the Archaean and survived the Bushveld event (Gibson and Stevens, 1998). Gibson and Stevens (1998) suggest from a study of the deep section of the crust exposed by the 2.02 Ga (post-Bushveld) Vredefort Impact Structure, that the metamorphic profile revealed is consistent with heating by craton-wide intraplating of mantle-derived magmas when a mantle plume head reached the base of the Kaapvaal lithosphere at ~2.06 Ga and underwent partial decompression melting.

The heat released from these magmas resulted in regional metamorphism of the adjacent crust, and anatexis of the deeper, high-grade sections of this metamorphosed terrane to produced the magmas that rose to form the felsic volcanic rocks of the Rooiberg Group, and high-level granophyre intrusions. After the anatectic Rooiberg Group volcanic and Rashoop Granophyre intrusive rocks were emplaced, pulses of progressively fractionated and contaminated mafic to ultramafic magmas from the deep chamber were ejected and rose to be ponded beneath the less dense felsites. At a later stage, further anatectic felsic magma from the wall rocks of the deeper chamber produced the LGS granites, rising though the denser RLS, to be emplaced at their level of buoyancy immediately below the Rooiberg felsites.


The dominant mineralisation styles of the Bushveld Complex are PGE and Chromite hosted by the Upper Critical Zone of the Rustenburg Layered Suite in the chromitite seams and the Merensky Reef and Platreef, distributed as outlined in the Rustenburg Layered Suite section above. For a description of the chromitite reefs mined in the Complex, see the Samancor Western Chrome Mines record. In addition, vanadium-iron deposits were formed in the magnetite layers within the Main Magnetite Layer of the Upper Zone of the Complex, as described in the Rhovan and Mapochs records.

Two main PGE deposit types have been defined within the Bushveld Complex, namely:
Merensky reef-style - narrow, to a maximum of 1 m thick layers (reefs) concordant to magmatic layering, that occur towards the top of the Upper Critical Zone, typically 2 km above the base of the intrusion, mainly found in the Western and Eastern lobes. These narrow zones have been the principal source of PGE minerals, although more recently, wider zones with more irregular footwall contacts have been mined. These are known as potholes. For a description of the Merensky Reef mineralisation and potholes, see the Impala Platinum and the Rustenburg Section
Platreef-type - contact-style mineralisation at the base of the intrusion, restricted to the Northern Limb of the Bushveld Complex. In general, the Platreef is composed of a variably layered, composite norite–pyroxenite–harzburgite intrusion that lies at or near the base of the Bushveld Complex. It is usually in contact with and encloses blocks and xenoliths of metasedimentary and granitic floor rocks. For a detailed description of Platreef mineralisation and setting see the Platreef/Flatreef record. McDonald and Holwell (2011) summarised the characteristics of the Platreef as follows:   - Stratigraphic relationships suggest it may be an equivalent of the interval that embraces the Merensky and UG2 reefs elsewhere in the Complex;
  - The Platreef comprises a complex of sills intruded into Archaean basement granite-gneiss, Palaeoproterozoic Transvaal Supergroup sedimentary rocks and/or the pre-Platreef Lower Zone intrusions of the Bushveld Complex.
  - The overlying Main Zone gabbronorites are intruded into solidified and deformed Platreef, and as such postdates Platreef mineralisation.
  - The mineral chemistry, bulk geochemistry and Sr, Nd, and Os isotope geochemistry of the Platreef are mostly consistent with an ultramafic component as in the Critical or Lower zones south of the Thabazimbi-Murchison Lineament.
  - Platreef εNd values and
187Os/188Os initial isotope ratios overlap with the Merensky Reef but not the Upper Critical Zone rocks.
  - Where the Platreef intruded the pyrite-rich shales of the lower Pretoria Group, conventional and mass-independent S isotopes imply a primary mantle source of S, overprinted by the addition of local crustal S. Assimilation of S is viewed as a modifying process, not as the primary trigger for mineralisation.
McDonald and Holwell (2011) postulated two emplacement models to explain the Platreef mineralisation:
 i). Platreef sulphides may have been derived from the same magma that formed the Merensky Reef in the central part of each Bushveld limb and which were injected up and out along intrusion walls as the chamber expanded.
 ii). Alternatively, sulphides may have formed in pre-Platreef staging chambers of the Lower Zone intrusions where they were upgraded by repeated interactions with batches of Lower Zone magma. The sulphides were subsequently expelled as a crystal-sulphide mush by an early pulse of Main Zone magma that broke into and spread through the earlier Lower Zone magma chambers.

Individual deposits and clusters of deposits are described separately and include:
• The Amandelbult and Union Section PGE deposits along the northwestern segment on the north-western margin of the Western Lobe of the complex, ~80 to 100 km north of Rustenberg and 40 to 60 km south of Thabazimbi.
• The Impala Platinum operation is distributed over an interval of ~30 km from Rustenburg in the south, to the margin of the younger Pilanesberg Intrusive Complex to the north, and comprises a complex of at least 15 shafts, including the early Bafokeng North, Bafokeng South, Wildebeestfontein South and Wildebeestfontein North mines.
• The Kroondal and Marikana platinum mines are located on the south-western and southern limb of the western lobe of the Bushveld Complex, immediate NE and east of the town of Rustenburg in the Northwest Province of South Africa.
• The Rustenburg Section PGE operations, which comprise 5 adjacent mines Bathopele, Khomanani, Thembelani, Khuseleka and Siphumelele are located to the east of the town of Rustenburg, and exploit ores from both the Merensky and UG2 Reefs in the Critical Zone in the southwestern section of the Western Lobe of the Bushveld Complex.
• The Samancor Western Chrome Mines deposits include the Elandsdrift open pit and the two underground mines, Waterkloof-Millsell and Mooinooi, centred around 40 km east of Rustenburg, distributed over much of a 50 km stretch of the southern rim of the Western Lobe of the Bushveld Complex.
• The Western Platinum or Marikana group of PGE mines, which includes Karee, Middelkraal, Westerns, Easterns and Marikana open-pit are distributed over a strike length of ~27 km, ~20 km to the east of Rustenberg on the southern margin of the Western Lobe of the Bushveld Complex.
• The Winterveld, Montrose, Groothoek and Maandagshoek chromite deposits are located on the Eastern Limb of the Bushveld Complex, NNW and west of Steelpoort.
• The Bokoni (formerly Lebowa and previously Atok) PGE deposit is located on the northen tip of the Eastern Limb of the complex, ~50 km NNW of Steelpoort, and the contiguous Ga-Phasha, Twickenham, Marula and Modikwa PGE deposits are located over an interval of ~50 km to the SSE of Bokoni, all on the eastern limb of the host Rustenburg Layered Suite. Following a gap ~10 km, Two Rivers, Mototola, Booysendal and Everest PGE deposits follow the eastern limb due south over an interval of ~35 km.
• The historic Grasvally and Zoetveld chromite deposits are located towards the southern termination of the Northern Lobe of the complex, 16 km south of the Mogalakwena (previously Potgeitersrus) platinum mine at Mokopane.
• The Platreef/Flatreef PGE deposit is developed within the Platreef on the Northern Limb of the Bushveld Complex, ~10 km NNW of the centre of the town of Mokopane,
• The Mogalakwena (formerly the Potgietersrust Platinums) PGE mine, exploits the Platreef on the Northern Limb of the complex, ~20 km NNW of the town of Mokopane.
• The Zwartkop and Groot-Marico chromite deposits are located on the Western and Far Western Lobes of the 2050 Ma Bushveld Complex.
• The Mapochs iron-vanadium mine is located near the eastern margin of the Eastern Lobe of the Bushveld Complex, near its southern limit, some 140 km SSE of Mokopane, hosted by the Main Magnetite Layer within the Upper Zone of the Bushveld Complex.
• The Rhovan iron-vanadium mine is located ~35 km ENE of Rustenburg, on the southern margin of the Western Lobe of the Bushveld Complex.

Other mineralisation associated with the Bushveld Complex includes, tin deposits, most likely associated with the Rooiberg Group volcanic sequences as at Rooiberg to the NW of the Western Lobe and with alkali feldspar granites of the Lebowa Granite Suite at Zaaiplaats on the eastern margin of the Northern Lobe.
Elsewhere, fluorite and iron mineralisation are mined at Vergenoeg, associated with a cross-cutting magnetite pipe cutting the Rooiberg felsic volcanic rocks, close to the centre of the four lobes in the core of the Bushveld Complex.

Satellite Intrusions

Some 75 km to the east of the south-eastern lobe of the main Bushveld Complex, an 8 x 1 km and 650 m thick, NW-SE trending, flat lying, poorly layered, sill like, 2025 Ma mafic body of harzburgite, gabbro, pyroxenite and gabbro-norite, the Uitkomst Complex, cuts Archaean basement and hosts the Nkomati massive sulphide Ni-Cu-Co-PGE deposit and the larger surrounding lower grade disseminated mineralisation of the same elements. The Uitkomst Complex is believed to be broadly coeval with, and related to, the Bushveld Complex.

In the north, some 150 km to the east of the eastern lobe of the Bushveld Complex, the 2060 Ma Phalaborwa (Palabora) Complex, a pipe-like 7 x 3 km mainly pyroxenite is exposed, which would appear to be part of the larger Bushveld event. This intrusion contains much smaller cores of carbonatite which host large reserves of economic magnetite-copper mineralisation at the Palabora deposit, and the Foskor phosphate deposit.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 2019.     Record last updated: 22/7/2019
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.

  References & Additional Information
   Selected References:
Armitage P E B, McDonald I, Edwards S J, Manby G M  2002 - Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v111 ppB36-B45
Arndt N, Jenner G, Ohnenstetter M, Deloule E and Wilson A H  2005 - Trace elements in the Merensky Reef and adjacent norites Bushveld Complex South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 550-575
Bailie R H and Robb L J,  2004 - Polymetallic mineralization in the granites of the Bushveld Complex - examples from the central southeastern lobe : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v107 pp 633-652
Ballhaus C G  1988 - Potholes of the Merensky Reef at Brakspruit Shaft, Rustenburg Platinum mines: primary disturbances in the magmatic stratigraphy: in    Econ. Geol.   v83 pp 1140-1158
Ballhaus C G  1988 - Potholes of the Merensky Reef at Brakspruit Shaft, Rustenburg Platinum Mines: Primary Disturbances in the Magnetite Stratigraphy: in    Econ. Geol.   v83, no.6 pp 1140-1158
Barnes S-J and Maier W D  2002 - Platinum-group Elements and Microstructures of Normal Merensky Reef from Impala Platinum Mines, Bushveld Complex : in    J. of Petrology   v43 pp 103-128
Barnes S-J, D, Bedard L P and Maier W D,  2009 - Selenium and sulfur concentrations in the Bushveld Complex of South Africa and implications for formation of the platinum-group element deposits: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.44 pp. 647-663
Barnes S-J, Maier W D and Curl E A,  2010 - Composition of the Marginal Rocks and Sills of the Rustenburg Layered Suite, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Implications for the Formation of the Platinum-Group Element Deposits: in    Econ. Geol.   v.105 pp. 1491-1511
Barnes, S.-J. and Maier, W.D.,  2002 - Platinum-group element distribution in the Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in Cabri, L.J., (Ed.), 2002 The Geology, geochemistry mineralogy and mineral benefication of platinum-group elements, Canadian Institute of Mining Metallurgy and Petroleum,   Special Volume 54, pp. 483-506.
Barton J M, Cawthorn R G, White J A  1986 - The Role of Contamination in the Evolution of the Platreef of the Bushveld Complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v81 pp 1096-1104
Basson, I.J.,  2018 - Cumulative deformation and original geometry of the Bushveld Complex: in    Tectonophysics   v.750, pp. 177-202.
Boorman S L, McGuire J B, Boudreau A E, Kruger F J  2003 - Fluid overpressure in layered intrusions: formation of a breccia pipe in the Eastern Bushveld Complex, Republic of South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v38 pp 356-369
Boorman S, Boudreau, A and Krugerm F J  2004 - The Lower Zone - Critical Zone Transition of the Bushveld Complex: a Quantitative Textural Study : in    J. of Petrology   v45 pp 1209-1235
Carr H W, Kruger F J,. Groves D I, Cawthorn R G  1999 - The petrogenesis of Merensky Reef potholes at the Western Platinum Mine, Bushveld Complex: Sr-isotopic evidence for synmagmatic deformation: in    Mineralium Deposita   v34 pp 335-347
Cawthorn G W,  2007 - Cr and Sr: Keys to parental magmas and processes in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Lithos   v95 pp 381-398
Cawthorn R G  1999 - Permeability of the Footwall Cumulates to the Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 293-302
Cawthorn R G  1999 - Platinum-Group Elements Mineralization in the Bushveld Complex - A Critical Reassessment of Geochemical Models: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 268-281
Cawthorn R G  2005 - Contrasting sulphide contents of the Bushveld and Sudbury Igneous Complexes: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 1-12
Cawthorn R G and Boerst K,  2006 - Origin of the Pegmatitic Pyroxenite in the Merensky Unit, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    J. of Petrology   v47 pp 1509-1530
Cawthorn R G,  1999 - The discovery of the platiniferous Merensky Reef in 1924: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102 pp 178-183
Cawthorn R G, Molyneux T G  1986 - Vanadifierous Magnetite Deposits of the Bushveld Complex: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (eds),  Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa Geol. Soc. of South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1251-1266
Clarke B M, Uken R, Watkeys M K and Reinhardt J,  2005 - Folding of the Rustenburg layered suite adjacent to the Steelpoort pericline: implications for syn-Bushveld tectonism in the eastern Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v108 pp 397-412
Coetzee J, Twist D  1989 - Disseminated Tin mineralization in the roof of the Bushveld granite pluton at the Zaaiplaats mine, with implications for the genesis of magmatic hydrothermal Tin systems: in    Econ. Geol.   v84 pp 1817-1834
Crocker I T  1986 - The Zaaiplaats Tinfield, Potgietersrus district: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (Eds.), 1986 Mineral Deposits of South Africa Geol. Soc. South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1287-1299
de Waal S A and Armstrong R A,  2000 - The age of the Marble Hall diorite, its relationship to the Uitkomst Complex, and evidence for a new magma type associated with the Bushveld igneous event : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v103 pp 128-140
du Plessis A and Kleywegt R J  1987 - A dipping sheet model for the mafic lobes of the Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v90 pp 1-6
Eales H V and Costin G,  2012 - Crustally Contaminated Komatiite: Primary Source of the Chromitites and Marginal, Lower, and Critical Zone Magmas in a Staging Chamber Beneath the Bushveld Complex : in    Econ. Geol.   v.107 p645-665
Eales H V,  2000 - Implications of the chromium budget of the Western Limb of the Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v103 pp 141-150
Eales H V, Cawthorn R G  1996 - The Bushveld Complex: in Cawthorn RG (ed),  Layered Intrusions: Elsevier, Amsterdam    pp 181-230
Farquhar J  1986 - The Western Platinum Mine: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (Eds.), 1986 Mineral Deposits of South Africa Geol. Soc. South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1135-1142
Gain S B  1985 - The geologic setting of the platiniferous UG-2 Chromitite layer on the farm Maandagshoek, eastern Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 925-943
Gain S B, Mostert A B  1982 - The Geological Setting of the Platinoid and Base Metal Sulfide Mineralization in the Platreef of the Bushveld Complex in Drenthe, North of Potgietersrus: in    Econ. Geol.   v77, no.6 pp 1395-1404
Godel B, Barnes S-J and Maier W D,   2006 - 3-D Distribution of Sulphide Minerals in the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the J-M Reef (Stillwater Complex, USA) and their Relationship to Microstructures Using X-Ray Computed Tomography : in    J. of Petrology   v47 pp 1853-1872
Godel B, BarnesS-J and Maier W D,  2007 - Platinum-Group Elements in Sulphide Minerals, Platinum-Group Minerals, and Whole-Rocks of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa): Implications for the Formation of the Reef : in    J. of Petrology   v48 pp 1569-1604
Harris C, Pronost J J M, Ashwal L D and Cawthorn R G,  2005 - Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Rustenburg Layered Suite, Bushveld Complex: Constraints on Crustal Contamination: in    J. of Petrology   v46 pp 579-601
Hattingh P J,  1986 - The palaeomagnetism of the Merensky Reef footwall rocks of the Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v89 pp 1-8
Hey P V  1999 - The Effects of Weathering on the UG2 Chromitite Reef of the Bushveld Complex, with Special Reference to the Platinum-Group Minerals: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 251-260
Hiemstra S A  1986 - The distribution of Chalcophile and Platinum-group elements in the UG-2 Chromitite layer of the Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v81 pp 1080-1086
Holwell D A and Jordaan A,  2006 - Three-dimensional mapping of the Platreef at the Zwartfontein South mine: implications for the timing of magmatic events in the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v115 pp 41-48
Holwell D A and McDonald I,   2006 - Petrology, geochemistry and the mechanisms determining the distribution of platinum-group element and base metal sulphide mineralisation in the Platreef at Overysel, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa : in    Mineralium Deposita   v41 pp 575-598
Holwell D A, Armitage P E B and McDonald I,  2005 - Observations on the relationship between the Platreef and its hangingwall: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v114 pp B199-207
Holwell D A, Boyce A J and McDonald I,  2007 - Sulfur Isotope Variations within the Platreef Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit: Genetic Implications for the Origin of Sulfide Mineralization: in    Econ. Geol.   v102 pp 1091-1110
Hulbert L J, Von Gruenewaldt G  1985 - Textural and compositional features of chromite in the lower and critical zones of the Bushveld complex south of Potgietersrus: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 872-895
Hutchinson D and McDonald I,  2008 - Laser ablation ICP-MS study of platinum-group elements in sulphides from the Platreef at Turfspruit, northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.43 pp. 695-711
Hutchinson, D. and Kinnaird, J.A.,  2005 - Complex multistage genesis for the Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation in the southern region of the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v114 pp. B208-224.
Junge, M., Oberthur, T., Kraemer, D., Melcher, F., Pina, R., Derrey, I.T., Manyeruke, T. and Strauss, H.,  2019 - Distribution of platinum-group elements in pristine and near-surface oxidized Platreef ore and the variation along strike, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.54, pp. 885-912.
Junge, M., Oberthur, T., Osbahr, I. and Gutte, P.,  2016 - Platinum-group elements and minerals in the lower and middle group chromitites of the western Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.51, pp. 841-852.
Kaufmann, F.E.D., Hoffmann, M.C., Bachmann, K., Veksler, I.V., Trumbull, R.B. and Hecht, L.,  2019 - Variations in Composition, Texture, and Platinum Group Element Mineralization in the Lower Group and Middle Group Chromitites of the Northwestern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Econ. Geol.   v.114, pp. 569-590.
Kingston G A, El-Dosuky B T  1982 - A Contribution on the Platinum-Group Mineralogy of the Merensky Reef at the Rustenburg Platinum Mine: in    Econ. Geol.   v77, no.6 pp 1367-1384
Kinnaird J A,  2005 - Geochemical evidence for multiphase emplacement in the southern Platreef: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v115 pp B225-242
Kinnaird J A, Hutchinson D, Schurmann L, Nex P A M and de Lange R  2005 - Petrology and mineralisation of the southern Platreef: northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 576-597
Kinnaird J A, Kruger F J, Nex P A M, Cawthorn R G  2002 - Chromitite formation - a key to understanding processes of platinum enrichment: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v111 B23-B35
Kinnaird, J.A., Yudovskaya, M.A, McCreesh, M., Huthmann, F. and Botha, T.J.,  2017 - The Waterberg Platinum Group Element Deposit: Atypical Mineralization in Mafic-Ultramafic Rocks of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Econ. Geol.   v.112, pp. 1367-1394.
Klemm D D, Henckel J, Dehn R, Von Gruenewaldt G  1985 - The geochemistry of Titanomagnetite in Magnetite layers and their host rocks of the eastern Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 1075-1088
Kruger F J  2005 - Filling the Bushveld Complex magma chamber: lateral expansion, roof and floor interaction, magmatic unconformities, and the formation of giant chromitite, PGE and Ti-V-magnetitite deposits: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 451-472
Kruger F J,  1990 - The stratigraphy of the Bushveld Complex; a reappraisal and the relocation of the Main Zone boundaries : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v93 pp 376-381
Kruger F J, Marsh J S  1985 - The mineralogy, petrology, and origin of the Merensky cyclic unit in the western Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 958-974
Leeb-Du Toit A  1986 - The Impala Platinum mines: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (Eds.), 1986 Mineral Deposits of South Africa Geol. Soc. South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1091-1106
Li C, Maier W D, de Waal S A  2001 - The role of magma mixing in the genesis of PGE mineralization in the Bushveld Complex: thermodynamic calculations and new interpretations: in    Econ. Geol.   v96 pp 653-662
Li C, Ripley E M, Sarkar A, Shin D and Maier W D  2005 - Origin of phlogopite-orthopyroxene inclusions in chromites from the Merensky Reef of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Contrib. to Mineralogy & Petrology   v150 pp 119-130
Li, Chusi, Ripley, E.M., Merino, E. and Maier, W.D.,  2004 - Replacements of Base Metal Sulfides by Actionolite, Epidote, Calcite, and Magnetite in the UG2 and Merensky Reef of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Econ. Geol.   v99 pp 173-184
Lomberg K G, Martin E S, Patterson M A, Venter J E  1999 - The Morphology of Potholes in the UG2 Chromitite Layer and Merensky Reef (Pothole Reef Facies) at Union Section, Rustenburg Platinum Mines: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 209-220
Magson, J., Tredoux, M. and Roelofse, F.,  2018 - Association of platinum-group elements with chromitite within the Merensky reef, Western Limb, Bushveld Complex: Results of a high resolution mineralogical and geochemical study: in    J. of African Earth Sciences   v.144, pp. 161-175.
Maier W D and Barnes S-J,  2010 - The petrogenesis of platinum-group element reefs in the Upper Main Zone of the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld Complex on the farm Moorddrift, South Africa: in    Econ. Geol.   v.105 pp. 841-854
Maier W D, Barnes S-J and van der Merwe M J,  2001 - Platinum-group elements in the Pyroxenite Marker, Bushveld Complex: implications for the formation of the Main Zone : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v104 pp 301-308
Maier W D, de Klerk L, Blaine J, Manyeruke T, Barnes S-J, Stevens M V A and Mavrogenes J A,  2008 - Petrogenesis of contact-style PGE mineralization in the northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex: comparison of data from the farms Rooipoort, Townlands, Drenthe and Nonnenwerth: in    Mineralium Deposita   v43 pp 255-280
Maier W D, Sliep J, Barnes S-J, de Waal S A and Li C,  2001 - PGE-bearing mafic-ultramafic sills in the floor of the eastern Bushveld Complex on the farms Blaauwboschkraal, Zwartkopje, and Waterval : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v104 pp 343-354
Maier, W D, and Barnes, S-J  2003 - Platinum-group elements in the Boulder Bed, western Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v38 pp 370-380
Maier, W.D. and Bowen, M.P.,  1996 - The UG2 Merensky Reef interval of the Bushveld Complex northwest of Pretoria: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.31, pp. 386 - 393.
Maier, W.D., Karykowski, B.T. and Yang, S.-H.,  2016 - Formation of transgressive anorthosite seams in the Bushveld Complex via tectonically induced mobilisation of plagioclase-rich crystal mushes: in    Geoscience Frontiers   v.7, pp. 875-889.
Manyeruke T D, Maier W D and Barnes S J,  2005 - Major and trace element geochemistry of the Platreef on the farm Townlands, northern Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v108 pp 381-396
Mathez E A and Kent A J R,  2007 - Variable initial Pb isotopic compositions of rocks associated with the UG2 chromitite, eastern Bushveld Complex: in    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta   v71 pp 5514-5527
Mathez E A and Mey J L  2005 - Character of the UG2 Chromitite and Host Rocks and Petrogenesis of Its Pegmatoidal Footwall, Northeastern Bushveld Complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v100 pp 1617-1630
McCarthy T S, Cawthorn R G, Wright C J, McIver J R  1985 - Mineral layering in the Bushveld complex: implications of Cr abundances in magnetite from closely spaced magnetite and intervening Silicate-rich layers: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 1062-1074
McDonald I and Holwell D A,  2007 - Did lower zone magma conduits store PGE-rich sulphides that were later supplied to the Platreef?: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v110 pp 611-616
McDonald, I, Harmer, R.E., Holwell, D.A., Hughes, H.S.R. and Boyce, A.J.,  2017 - Cu-Ni-PGE mineralisation at the Aurora Project and potential for a new PGE province in the Northern Bushveld Main Zone: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.80, pp. 1135-1150.
McDonald. I., Holwell, D.A. and Armitage, P.E.B.,  2005 - Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Platreef and Critical Zone of the northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for Bushveld stratigraphy and the development of PGE mineralisation: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.40, pp. 526-549.
McNaughton N J, Pollard P J, Groves D I, Taylor R G  1993 - A long-lived hydrothermal system in Bushveld Granites at the Zaaiplaats Tin mine: Lead isotope evidence: in    Econ. Geol.   v88 pp 27-43
Mitchell A A and Manthree R,  2002 - The Giant Mottled Anorthosite: a transitional sequence at the top of the Upper Critical Zone of the Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v105 pp 15-24
Mitchell A A and Scoon R N,  2007 - The Merensky Reef at Winnaarshoek, Eastern Bushveld Complex: A Primary Magmatic Hypothesis Based on a Wide Reef Facies: in    Econ. Geol.   v102 pp 971-1009
Mitchell A A,  1990 - The stratigraphy, petrography and mineralogy of the main zone of the northwestern Bushveld Complex: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v93 pp 818-831
Mondal S K and Mathez E A,  2007 - Origin of the UG2 chromitite layer, Bushveld Complex: in    J. of Petrology   v48 pp 495-510
Naldrett A J, Gasparrini E C, Barnes S J, Von Gruenewaldt G, Sharpe M R  1986 - The upper critical zone of the Bushveld complex and the origin of Merensky-type ores: in    Econ. Geol.   v81 pp 1105-1117
Naldrett A J, Wilson A, Kinnaird J, Yudovskaya M and Chunnett G,  2012 - The origin of chromitites and related PGE mineralization in the Bushveld Complex: new mineralogical and petrological constraints: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.47 pp. 209-232
Nex P A M,  2005 - The structural setting of mineralisation on the Tweefontein Hill, northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v114 pp B243-251
Nex P A, Kinnaird J A, Ingle L J, van der Vyver B A and Cawthorn R G,  1998 - A new stratigraphy for the Main Zone of the Bushveld Complex, in the Rustenburg area : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v101 pp 215-223
Oberthur, T.,Junge, M., Rudashevsky, N., de Meyer, E. and Gutter, P.,  2016 - Platinum-group minerals in the LG and MG chromitites of the eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.51, pp. 71-87
Penberthy C J, Merkle R K W  1999 - Lateral Variations in the Platinum-Group Element Content and Mineralogy of the UG2 Chromitite Layer, Bushveld Complex: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 240-250
Pollard P J, Andrew A S, Taylor R G  1991 - Fluid inclusion and stable isotope evidence for interaction between granites and magmatic hydrothermal fluids during the formation of disseminated and pipe-style mineralization at the Zaaiplaats Tin Mine: in    Econ. Geol.   v86 pp 121-141
Pollard P J, Taylor R G, Taylor R P, Groves D I  1991 - Petrographic and geochemical evolution of pervasively altered Bushveld granites at the Zaaiplaats Tin mine: in    Econ. Geol.   v86 pp 1401-1433
Porter T M,  2010 - Current Understanding of Iron Oxide Associated-Alkali Altered Mineralised Systems: Part II, A Review: in Porter T M, (Ed),  2010 Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold and Related Deposits: A Global Perspective, PGC Publishing, Adelaide   v.3 pp. 33-106
Prevec, S.A., Ashwal, L.D. and Mkaza, M.S.,  2005 - Mineral disequilibrium in the Merensky Reef, western Bushveld Complex, South Africa: new Sm-Nd isotopic evidence: in    Contrib. to Mineralogy & Petrology   v.49, pp. 306-315.
Prichard H M, Barnes S-J, Maier W D, Fisher P C,  2004 - Variations in the nature of the platinum-group minerals in a cross-section through the Merensky Reef at Impala Platinum: implications for the mode of formation of the reef - **CURRENTLY UNAVAILABLE**: in    The Canadian Mineralogist   v42 pp 423-437
Pronost, J., Harris, C. and Pin, C.,  2008 - Relationship between footwall composition, crustal contamination, and fluid-rock interaction in the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.43, pp. 825-848.
Reynolds I M  1985 - The nature and origin of Titaniferous Magnetite-rich layers in the upper zone of the Bushveld complex: a review and synthesis: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 1089-1108
Reynolds I M  1986 - The Mineralogy and Ore Petrography of the Bushveld Titaniferous Magnetite-Rich Lyers: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (eds),  Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa Geol. Soc. of South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1267-1286
Roberts M D, Reid D L, Miller J A, Basson I J, Roberts M and Smith D,   2007 - The Merensky Cyclic Unit and its impact on footwall cumulates below Normal and Regional Pothole reef types in the Western Bushveld Complex : in    Mineralium Deposita   v42 pp 271-292
Schurmann L W, Grabe P-J, Steenkamp C J  1998 - Chromium: in Wilson M G C, Anhaeusser C R, (eds),  The Mineral Resources of South Africa Council for Geoscience, Pretoria    pp 90-105
Schurmann L W, Marsh S  1998 - Vanadium: in Wilson M G C, Anhaeusser C R, (eds),  The Mineral Resources of South Africa Council for Geoscience, Pretoria    pp 659-665
Scoates J S and Friedman R M,  2008 - Precise Age Of The Platiniferous Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, By The U-Pb Zircon Chemical Abrasion Id-Tims Technique : in    Econ. Geol.   v.103 pp. 465-471
Scoon R N and Mitchell A A,  2004 - The platiniferous dunite pipes in the eastern limb of the Bushveld Complex: Review and comparison with unmineralized discordant ultramafic bodies: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v107 pp 505-520
Seabrook C L, Cawthorn R G and Kruger F J,  2005 - The Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex: Mixing of Minerals Not Mixing of Magmas: in    Econ. Geol.   v100 pp 1191-1205
Sharman E R, Penniston-Dorland S C, Kinnaird J A, Nex P A M, Brown M and Wing B A,  2013 - Primary origin of marginal Ni-Cu-(PGE) mineralization in layered intrusions: Δ33S evidence from The Platreef, Bushveld, South Africa : in    Econ. Geol.   v.108 p. 365-377
Sharman-Harris E R, Kinnaird J A, Harris C and Horstmann U E,  2005 - A new look at sulphide mineralisation of the northern limb, Bushveld Complex: A stable isotope study: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v114 pp B252-263
Smith D S and Basson I J,  2006 - Shape and distribution analysis of Merensky Reef potholing, Northam Platinum Mine, western Bushveld Complex: implications for pothole formation and growth: in    Mineralium Deposita   v41 pp 281-295
Smith, D.S., Basson, I.J. and Reid, D.L.,  2004 - Normal Reef subfacies of the Merensky Reef at Northam Platinum mine, Zwartklip Facies, western Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    The Canadian Mineralogist   v.42, pp. 243-260.
Smith, J.W., Holwell, D.A. and McDonald, I.,  2016 - Precious and base metal geochemistry and mineralogy of the Grasvally Norite-Pyroxenite-Anorthosite (GNPA) member, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for a multistage emplacement: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.49, pp. 667-692.
Smith, J.W., Holwell, D.A., McDonald, I. and Boyce, A.J.,  2016 - The application of S isotopes and S/Se ratios in determining ore-forming processes of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide deposits: A cautionary case study from the northern Bushveld Complex: in    Ore Geology Reviews   v.73, pp. 148-174.
Song, X., Wang, Y. and Chen, L.,  2011 - Magmatic Ni-Cu-(PGE) deposits in magma plumbing systems: Features, formation and exploration: in    Geoscience Frontiers   v.2, pp. 375-384.
Tanner, D., McDonald, I., Harmer, R.E., Muir, D.D. and Hughes, H.S.R.,  2019 - A record of assimilation preserved by exotic minerals in the lowermost platinum-group element deposit of the Bushveld Complex: The Volspruit Sulphide Zone: in    Lithos   v.324-325, pp. 584-608.
Tegner C, Cawthorn R G and Kruger F J,   2006 - Cyclicity in the Main and Upper Zones of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Crystallization from a Zoned Magma Sheet : in    J. of Petrology   v47 pp 2257-2279
Teigler B  1999 - Chromite Chemistry and Platinum-Group Element Distribution of the LG6 Chromitite, Northwestern Bushveld Complex: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 282-285
Teigler B, Eales H V and Scoon R N,  1992 - The cumulate succession in the Critical Zone of the Rustenburg layered suite at Brits, western Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v95 pp 17-28
Van der Merwe J and Cawthorn R G,  2005 - Structures at the base of the Upper Group 2 chromitite layer, Bushveld Complex, South Africa, on Karee Mine (Lonmin Platinum): in    Lithos   v83 pp 214-228
van der Merwe M J,  2008 - The geology and structure of the Rustenburg Layered Suite in the Potgietersrus/Mokopane area of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v43 pp. 405-419
Vermaak C F, von Gruenewaldt G  1986 - Introduction to the Bushveld Complex: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (eds),  Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa Geol. Soc. of South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1021-1029
Viljoen M J  1999 - The Nature and Origin of the Merensky Reef of the Western Bushveld Complex Based on Geological Facies and Geophysical Data: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 221-239
Viljoen M J, Hieber R W  1986 - The Rustenburg Section of Rustenburg Platinum Mines Limited, with Reference to the Merensky Reef: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (eds),  Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa Geol. Soc. of South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1107-1134
Viljoen M J, Schurmann L W  1998 - Platinum-Group Metals: in Wilson M G C, Anhaeusser C R, (eds),  The Mineral Resources of South Africa Council for Geoscience, Pretoria    pp 532-568
Viring R G and Cowell M W,  1999 - The Merensky Reef on Northam Platinum Limited: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102 pp 192-208
Viring R G and Cowell M W,  1999 - The Merensky Reef on Northam Platinum Limited: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102 pp 192-208
Von Gruenewaldt G, Hatton C J, Merkle R K W  1986 - Platinum-group element-Chromitite associations in the Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v81 pp 1067-1079
Von Gruenewaldt G, Klemm D D, Henckel J, Dehm R M  1985 - Exsolution features in Titanomagnetites from massive Magnetite layers and their host rocks of the upper zone, eastern Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 1049-1061
Voordouw R J, Gutzmer J and Beukes N J,  2010 - Zoning of platinum group mineral assemblages in the UG2 chromitite determined through in situ SEM-EDS-based image analysis: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.45 pp. 147-159
White J A  1994 - The Potgietersrus Prospect - Geology and Exploration History: in   XVth CMMI Congress, Johannesburg SAIMM   v3 pp 173-181
Wilson A and Chunnett G,   2006 - Trace Element and Platinum Group Element Distributions and the Genesis of the Merensky Reef, Western Bushveld Complex, South Africa : in    J. of Petrology   v47 pp 2369-2403
Wilson A H, Lee C A, Brown R T  1999 - Geochemistry of the Merensky reef, Rustenburg Section, Bushveld Complex: controls on the silicate framework and distribution of trace elements: in    Mineralium Deposita   v34 pp 657-672
Worst B G  1986 - The Chromite Deposits at Kroondal Chrome Mine, Western Bushveld Complex: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (eds),  Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa Geol. Soc. of South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1209-1215
Worst B G  1986 - The chromite deposits at Kroondal chrome mine, western Bushveld Complex: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (Eds.), 1986 Mineral Deposits of South Africa Geol. Soc. South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1209-1215
Yudovskaya M A, Kinnaird J A, Sobolev A V, Kuzmin D V, McDonald I and Wilson A H,   2013 - Petrogenesis of the Lower Zone Olivine-Rich Cumulates Beneath the Platreef and Their Correlation with Recognized Occurrences in the Bushveld Complex : in    Econ. Geol.   v.108 pp. 1923-1952
Yudovskaya, M., Belousova, E., Kinnaird, J., Dubinina, E., Grobler, D. and Pearson, N.,  2017 - Re-Os and S isotope evidence for the origin of Platreef mineralization (Bushveld Complex): in    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta   v.214, pp. 282-307.
Yudovskaya, M.A, Kinnaird, J.A., Grobler, D.F., Costin, G., Abramova, V.D., Dunnett, T. and Barnes, S.J.,   2017 - Zonation of Merensky-Style Platinum-Group Element Mineralization in Turfspruit Thick Reef Facies (Northern Limb of the Bushveld Complex) : in    Econ. Geol.   v.112, pp. 1333-1365.

Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd (PorterGeo) provides access to this database at no charge.   It is largely based on scientific papers and reports in the public domain, and was current when the sources consulted were published.   While PorterGeo endeavour to ensure the information was accurate at the time of compilation and subsequent updating, PorterGeo takes no responsibility what-so-ever for inaccurate or out of date data, information or interpretations.

Top | Search Again | PGC Home | Terms & Conditions

PGC Logo
Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd
 International Study Tours
     Tour photo albums
 Ore deposit database
 Conferences & publications
PGC Publishing
 Our books  &  bookshop
     Iron oxide copper-gold series
     Super-porphyry series
     Porhyry & Hydrothermal Cu-Au
 Ore deposit literature
 What's new
 Site map