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Bushveld Complex

South Africa

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The composite Rooiberg-Bushveld Complex is located in northern South Africa to the north of Johannesburg and Pretoria,

The complex was emplaced into and over the Mesoarchaean to Palaeoproterozoic Kaapvaal craton, close to its northern margin, at 2.05 Ga.

The Kaapvaal craton comprises a Palaeo- to Mesoarchaean granite-greenstone basement, overlain by a thick stratified pile of late Mesoarchaean to early Palaeoproterozoic mafic volcanic and intracratonic sedimentary rocks. These include the ~8 km thick clastic successions of the Mesoarchaean Dominion Group and Witwatersrand Supergroup, the ~5 km of mafic volcanic rocks that constitute the Neoarchaean Ventersdorp Supergroup and the 15 km late Neoarchaean to early Palaeoproterozoic (2.64 to 2.05 Ga), Transvaal Supergroup, composed of intracratonic clastic, chemical (BIFs) and carbonatic sedimentary and lesser volcanic rocks. This pile remained relatively undeformed, because by the late Mesoarchaean, the craton was sufficiently rigid (stabilised) to retard the development of the unstable granite-greenstone tectonics seen at the same period on many other cratonic nuclei (Eglington and Armstrong, 2004).

The Transvaal Supergroup is unconformably overlain by the Rooiberg Group (sometimes included as the uppermost volcanic unit of the Transvaal Supergroup; e.g., Button, 1986). This group is almost entirely composed of volcanic rocks that total up to 3.5 km in thickness and are preserved over >50 000 km2, although they are estimated to have originally covered an oval-shaped 450 x 350 km (>110 000 km2) area (Kinnaird, 2005). The Rooiberg Group occurs directly over the centre of, and forms the intruded roof to the Bushveld Complex. It has been subdivided into four parts, as follows:
i). Dullstroom Formation, comprising at least three compositional groups, low- and high-Ti mafic to intermediate units, and high-Mg felsic units;
ii). Damwal Formation, marking the last high-Mg felsites and the first sedimentary intercalations and pyroclastics, accompanied by high-Fe, Ti, P volcanics, overlain by dacites and rhyolites;
iii). and iv). Kwaggasnek and Schrikkloof Formations, dominated by dacitic pyroclastics, rare rhyolites flows and intercalated sedimentary horizons. Precise U-Pb zircon dating of Kwaggasnek Formation felsites gives an age of 2059.9±1 Ma, consistently younger than the main layered mafic stage of the Bushveld Complex (zircons from the Merensky Reef and from late stage pegmatoids give ages of 2055.3±1.2 Ma and 2056.3±0.7 Ma respectively; Armstrong et al., 2010). The Rooiberg Group is conformably overlain by the Loskop formation clastic sediments with minor volcanic intercalations. Clastic sediments in this latter unit include eroded clasts of the main mafic stage of the Bushveld Complex (Schweitzer et al., 1995; Kinnaird, 2005).

Widespread, but not voluminous, 2061.8±5.5 Ma granophyre masses of the Rashoop Granophyre Suite are found below the Rooiberg Group, but above the layered mafic phases of the Bushveld complex which it predates (Kinnaird, 2005).

The main mafic to ultramafic phase of the Bushveld Complex, the 7 to 8 km thick Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS), was emplaced as a series of sub-concordant sills along the unconformable contact between the top of the Transvaal Supergroup and the base of the Rooiberg Group, with the floor being the upper sections of the Pretoria Group. The RLS dips to the north, and covers an area of ~65 000 km
2, elongated east-west parallel to the margin of the craton. It was formed in five chambers that were most likely connected with each other and with a sixth at depth. The RLS was fed by repeated injections of magma from depth, changing composition with time, and has a complex-wide "stratigraphic layering", including, from the base, the:
• Marginal Zone, medium grained, unlayered rocks which underlay much of the complex, mostly norite;
• Lower Zone, 1450 m thick of bronzitite, harzburgite and dunite;
• Critical Zone, 1400 m thick of a strongly layered lower pyroxenite series of orthopyroxene cumulates comprising norites, peridotites and chromitites (the main Cr ores), followed by an upper, strongly layered anorthosite series of harzburgite, pyroxenite, through norite to anorthosite with chromitite layers (containing PGE ores, e.g., the UG2, with lesser associated Ni-Cu);
• Main Zone, 2800 m thick containing the Merensky Reef (the main PGE host) then massive gabbronorite, with infrequent anorthosite and pyroxene bands; and
• Upper Zone, 2100 m thick, of strongly banded gabbro, Fe-olivine gabbro and magnetite layers (the main V-Fe ores).

The RLS occurs in four discrete lobes, namely the:
i). Western Lobe, which extends from near Pretoria westwards to Rustenburg and around the Pilanesberg alkaline complex, to and along the southern flank of the Makoppa Dome of the Archaean granitiods and gneisses;
ii). South-eastern or Bethal Lobe, which is largely covered by Mesozoic rocks;
iii). Eastern Lobe, that extends in a northwards arc west of Belfast up to Atok; and
iv). Northern Lobe that extends south of Mokopane to Villa Nora. In addition, a Far Western Lobe is indicated to the west of the Western Lobe.
In the eastern lobe of the complex, the Upper Zone of the RLS is characterised by banded gabbros with up to 25 layers of cumulate, massive and net-textured, titaniferous and vanadiferous magnetite, the thickest being 7 m, while the most consistent averages 2 m. Each layer has a sharp base and gradational upper margin (Kinnaird, 2005; Cawthorn and Molyneux, 1986). Sections of the Upper zone are also cut by magnetite breccia pipes of similar composition to the layers, reflecting upward expulsion of magnetite from the cumulate layers (Cawthorn and Molyneux, 1986).

The final phase of the Bushveld Complex is the 1.5 to 3.5 km thick, sheeted Lebowa Granite Suite (LGS) that has an areal extent of 30 000 km
2, and with ages of 2054±2 Ma (Armstrong et al., 2010) postdates the RLS. The granite underlies the older, less dense Rooiberg Group and Rashoop Granophyre Suite, but overlies the denser RLS, through which feeder dykes are mapped. Wilson et al. (2000) suggest foliations and lineations are horizontal, reflecting vertical host-rock compression and horizontal magma flow during emplacement, with space being created for the granites by roof uplift and floor depression. They are predominantly alkali feldspar granites with iron-rich ferromagnesian minerals and have been categorised as A-type (Kleeman and Twist, 1989).

Bushveld Complex
All of the data available suggests the whole complex, including the Rooiberg Group volcanic rocks, associated granophyres, A-type granites of the LGS, and the layered ultramafic complex of the RLS, was emplaced over a period of only 3 to 5 m.y. (Kinnaird, 2005; Armstrong et al., 2010). Kinnaird, 2005 discusses a range of opinion on the formation of the Bushveld Complex, but favours the Kaapvaal craton having undergone northeast-southwest extension and strike-slip reactivation, as suggested by the lack of pre-Bushveld deformation of the Transvaal Supergroup and its preservation over large parts of the craton, as well as the generation of A-type granites, usually associated with crustal extension. In addition, the preservation of the volcanic and shallow-level intrusive rocks of the Bushveld Complex indicates that the significant magmatic thickening related to the Bushveld event must have been compensated by coeval crustal thinning (Gibson and Stevens, 1998). However, as Late Proterozoic to Cretaceous diamondiferous kimberlites in the adjacent Kaapvaal contain a ~3.1 Ga diamond population (Richardson et al., 1984; Shirey et al., 2003), a lithospheric root in excess of 140 km must have existed beneath the craton in the Archaean and survived the Bushveld event (Gibson and Stevens, 1998). Gibson and Stevens (1998) suggest from a study of the deep section of the crust exposed by the 2.02 Ga (post-Bushveld) Vredefort Impact Structure, that the metamorphic profile revealed is consistent with heating by craton-wide intraplating of mantle-derived magmas when a mantle plume head reached the base of the Kaapvaal lithosphere at ~2.06 Ga and underwent partial decompression melting.

The heat released from these magmas resulted in regional metamorphism of the adjacent crust, and anatexis of the deeper, high-grade sections of this metamorphosed terrane to produced the magmas that rose to form the felsic volcanic rocks of the Rooiberg Group, and high-level granophyre intrusions. After the anatectic Rooiberg Group volcanic and Rashoop Granophyre intrusive rocks were emplaced, pulses of progressively fractionated and contaminated mafic to ultramafic magmas from the deep chamber were ejected and rose to be ponded beneath the less dense felsites. At a later stage, further anatectic felsic magma from the wall rocks of the deeper chamber produced the LGS granites, rising though the denser RLS, to be emplaced at their level of buoyancy immediately below the Rooiberg felsites.

The most recent source geological information used to prepare this summary was dated: 2011.     Record last updated: 1/11/2012
This description is a summary from published sources, the chief of which are listed below.
© Copyright Porter GeoConsultancy Pty Ltd.   Unauthorised copying, reproduction, storage or dissemination prohibited.


  References & Additional Information
 References to this deposit in the PGC Literature Collection:
Armitage P E B, McDonald I, Edwards S J, Manby G M  2002 - Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v111 ppB36-B45
Arndt N, Jenner G, Ohnenstetter M, Deloule E and Wilson A H  2005 - Trace elements in the Merensky Reef and adjacent norites Bushveld Complex South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 550-575
Bailie R H and Robb L J,  2004 - Polymetallic mineralization in the granites of the Bushveld Complex - examples from the central southeastern lobe : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v107 pp 633-652
Ballhaus C G  1988 - Potholes of the Merensky Reef at Brakspruit Shaft, Rustenburg Platinum Mines: Primary Disturbances in the Magnetite Stratigraphy: in    Econ. Geol.   v83, no.6 pp 1140-1158
Ballhaus C G  1988 - Potholes of the Merensky Reef at Brakspruit Shaft, Rustenburg Platinum mines: primary disturbances in the magmatic stratigraphy: in    Econ. Geol.   v83 pp 1140-1158
Barnes S-J and Maier W D  2002 - Platinum-group Elements and Microstructures of Normal Merensky Reef from Impala Platinum Mines, Bushveld Complex : in    J. of Petrology   v43 pp 103-128
Barnes S-J and  Maier W D  2002 - Platinum-group element distribution in the Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa.: in Cabri L J 2002 The Geology, geochemistry mineralogy and mineral benefication of platinum-group elements Canadian Institute of Mining Metallurgy and Petroleum   Special Volume 54 pp 483-506
Barnes S-J, D, Bedard L P and Maier W D,  2009 - Selenium and sulfur concentrations in the Bushveld Complex of South Africa and implications for formation of the platinum-group element deposits: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.44 pp. 647-663
Barnes S-J, Maier W D and Curl E A,  2010 - Composition of the Marginal Rocks and Sills of the Rustenburg Layered Suite, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: Implications for the Formation of the Platinum-Group Element Deposits: in    Econ. Geol.   v.105 pp. 1491-1511
Barton J M, Cawthorn R G, White J A  1986 - The Role of Contamination in the Evolution of the Platreef of the Bushveld Complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v81 pp 1096-1104
Boorman S L, McGuire J B, Boudreau A E, Kruger F J  2003 - Fluid overpressure in layered intrusions: formation of a breccia pipe in the Eastern Bushveld Complex, Republic of South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v38 pp 356-369
Boorman S, Boudreau, A and Krugerm F J  2004 - The Lower Zone - Critical Zone Transition of the Bushveld Complex: a Quantitative Textural Study : in    J. of Petrology   v45 pp 1209-1235
Carr H W, Kruger F J,. Groves D I, Cawthorn R G  1999 - The petrogenesis of Merensky Reef potholes at the Western Platinum Mine, Bushveld Complex: Sr-isotopic evidence for synmagmatic deformation: in    Mineralium Deposita   v34 pp 335-347
Cawthorn G W,  2007 - Cr and Sr: Keys to parental magmas and processes in the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Lithos   v95 pp 381-398
Cawthorn R G  2005 - Contrasting sulphide contents of the Bushveld and Sudbury Igneous Complexes: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 1-12
Cawthorn R G  1999 - Permeability of the Footwall Cumulates to the Merensky Reef, Bushveld Complex: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 293-302
Cawthorn R G  1999 - Platinum-Group Elements Mineralization in the Bushveld Complex - A Critical Reassessment of Geochemical Models: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 268-281
Cawthorn R G and Boerst K,  2006 - Origin of the Pegmatitic Pyroxenite in the Merensky Unit, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    J. of Petrology   v47 pp 1509-1530
Cawthorn R G,  1999 - The discovery of the platiniferous Merensky Reef in 1924: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102 pp 178-183
Cawthorn R G, Molyneux T G  1986 - Vanadifierous Magnetite Deposits of the Bushveld Complex: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (eds),  Mineral Deposits of Southern Africa Geol. Soc. of South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1251-1266
Clarke B M, Uken R, Watkeys M K and Reinhardt J,  2005 - Folding of the Rustenburg layered suite adjacent to the Steelpoort pericline: implications for syn-Bushveld tectonism in the eastern Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v108 pp 397-412
Coetzee J, Twist D  1989 - Disseminated Tin mineralization in the roof of the Bushveld granite pluton at the Zaaiplaats mine, with implications for the genesis of magmatic hydrothermal Tin systems: in    Econ. Geol.   v84 pp 1817-1834
Crocker I T  1986 - The Zaaiplaats Tinfield, Potgietersrus district: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (Eds.), 1986 Mineral Deposits of South Africa Geol. Soc. South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1287-1299
de Waal S A and Armstrong R A,  2000 - The age of the Marble Hall diorite, its relationship to the Uitkomst Complex, and evidence for a new magma type associated with the Bushveld igneous event : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v103 pp 128-140
du Plessis A and Kleywegt R J  1987 - A dipping sheet model for the mafic lobes of the Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v90 pp 1-6
Eales H V and Costin G,  2012 - Crustally Contaminated Komatiite: Primary Source of the Chromitites and Marginal, Lower, and Critical Zone Magmas in a Staging Chamber Beneath the Bushveld Complex : in    Econ. Geol.   v.107 p645-665
Eales H V,  2000 - Implications of the chromium budget of the Western Limb of the Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v103 pp 141-150
Eales H V, Cawthorn R G  1996 - The Bushveld Complex: in Cawthorn RG (ed),  Layered Intrusions: Elsevier, Amsterdam    pp 181-230
Farquhar J  1986 - The Western Platinum Mine: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (Eds.), 1986 Mineral Deposits of South Africa Geol. Soc. South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1135-1142
Gain S B  1985 - The geologic setting of the platiniferous UG-2 Chromitite layer on the farm Maandagshoek, eastern Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 925-943
Gain S B, Mostert A B  1982 - The Geological Setting of the Platinoid and Base Metal Sulfide Mineralization in the Platreef of the Bushveld Complex in Drenthe, North of Potgietersrus: in    Econ. Geol.   v77, no.6 pp 1395-1404
Godel B, Barnes S-J and Maier W D,   2006 - 3-D Distribution of Sulphide Minerals in the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa) and the J-M Reef (Stillwater Complex, USA) and their Relationship to Microstructures Using X-Ray Computed Tomography : in    J. of Petrology   v47 pp 1853-1872
Godel B, BarnesS-J and Maier W D,  2007 - Platinum-Group Elements in Sulphide Minerals, Platinum-Group Minerals, and Whole-Rocks of the Merensky Reef (Bushveld Complex, South Africa): Implications for the Formation of the Reef : in    J. of Petrology   v48 pp 1569-1604
Harris C, Pronost J J M, Ashwal L D and Cawthorn R G,  2005 - Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotope Stratigraphy of the Rustenburg Layered Suite, Bushveld Complex: Constraints on Crustal Contamination: in    J. of Petrology   v46 pp 579-601
Hattingh P J,  1986 - The palaeomagnetism of the Merensky Reef footwall rocks of the Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v89 pp 1-8
Hey P V  1999 - The Effects of Weathering on the UG2 Chromitite Reef of the Bushveld Complex, with Special Reference to the Platinum-Group Minerals: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 251-260
Hiemstra S A  1986 - The distribution of Chalcophile and Platinum-group elements in the UG-2 Chromitite layer of the Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v81 pp 1080-1086
Holwell D A and Jordaan A,  2006 - Three-dimensional mapping of the Platreef at the Zwartfontein South mine: implications for the timing of magmatic events in the northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v115 pp 41-48
Holwell D A and McDonald I,   2006 - Petrology, geochemistry and the mechanisms determining the distribution of platinum-group element and base metal sulphide mineralisation in the Platreef at Overysel, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa : in    Mineralium Deposita   v41 pp 575-598
Holwell D A, Armitage P E B and McDonald I,  2005 - Observations on the relationship between the Platreef and its hangingwall: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v114 pp B199-207
Holwell D A, Boyce A J and McDonald I,  2007 - Sulfur Isotope Variations within the Platreef Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit: Genetic Implications for the Origin of Sulfide Mineralization: in    Econ. Geol.   v102 pp 1091-1110
Hulbert L J, Von Gruenewaldt G  1985 - Textural and compositional features of chromite in the lower and critical zones of the Bushveld complex south of Potgietersrus: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 872-895
Hutchinson D and Kinnard J A,  2005 - Complex multistage genesis for the Ni-Cu-PGE mineralisation in the southern region of the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v114 pp B208-224
Hutchinson D and McDonald I,  2008 - Laser ablation ICP-MS study of platinum-group elements in sulphides from the Platreef at Turfspruit, northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.43 pp. 695-711
Junge, M., Oberthur, T., Osbahr, I. and Gutte, P.,  2016 - Platinum-group elements and minerals in the lower and middle group chromitites of the western Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v.51, pp. 841-852.
Kingston G A, El-Dosuky B T  1982 - A Contribution on the Platinum-Group Mineralogy of the Merensky Reef at the Rustenburg Platinum Mine: in    Econ. Geol.   v77, no.6 pp 1367-1384
Kinnaird J A,  2005 - Geochemical evidence for multiphase emplacement in the southern Platreef: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v115 pp B225-242
Kinnaird J A, Hutchinson D, Schurmann L, Nex P A M and de Lange R  2005 - Petrology and mineralisation of the southern Platreef: northern limb of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 576-597
Kinnaird J A, Kruger F J, Nex P A M, Cawthorn R G  2002 - Chromitite formation - a key to understanding processes of platinum enrichment: in    Trans. IMM (incorp. AusIMM Proc.), Section B, Appl. Earth Sc.   v111 B23-B35
Klemm D D, Henckel J, Dehn R, Von Gruenewaldt G  1985 - The geochemistry of Titanomagnetite in Magnetite layers and their host rocks of the eastern Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 1075-1088
Kruger F J  2005 - Filling the Bushveld Complex magma chamber: lateral expansion, roof and floor interaction, magmatic unconformities, and the formation of giant chromitite, PGE and Ti-V-magnetitite deposits: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 451-472
Kruger F J,  1990 - The stratigraphy of the Bushveld Complex; a reappraisal and the relocation of the Main Zone boundaries : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v93 pp 376-381
Kruger F J, Marsh J S  1985 - The mineralogy, petrology, and origin of the Merensky cyclic unit in the western Bushveld complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 958-974
Leeb-Du Toit A  1986 - The Impala Platinum mines: in Anhaeusser C R, Maske S, (Eds.), 1986 Mineral Deposits of South Africa Geol. Soc. South Africa, Johannesburg   v2 pp 1091-1106
Li C, Maier W D, de Waal S A  2001 - The role of magma mixing in the genesis of PGE mineralization in the Bushveld Complex: thermodynamic calculations and new interpretations: in    Econ. Geol.   v96 pp 653-662
Li C, Ripley E M, Sarkar A, Shin D and Maier W D  2005 - Origin of phlogopite-orthopyroxene inclusions in chromites from the Merensky Reef of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Contrib. to Mineralogy & Petrology   v150 pp 119-130
Li, Chusi, Ripley, E.M., Merino, E. and Maier, W.D.,  2004 - Replacements of Base Metal Sulfides by Actionolite, Epidote, Calcite, and Magnetite in the UG2 and Merensky Reef of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Econ. Geol.   v99 pp 173-184
Lomberg K G, Martin E S, Patterson M A, Venter J E  1999 - The Morphology of Potholes in the UG2 Chromitite Layer and Merensky Reef (Pothole Reef Facies) at Union Section, Rustenburg Platinum Mines: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v102, no.3 pp 209-220
Maier W D and Barnes S-J,  2010 - The petrogenesis of platinum-group element reefs in the Upper Main Zone of the Northern Lobe of the Bushveld Complex on the farm Moorddrift, South Africa: in    Econ. Geol.   v.105 pp. 841-854
Maier W D, Barnes S-J and van der Merwe M J,  2001 - Platinum-group elements in the Pyroxenite Marker, Bushveld Complex: implications for the formation of the Main Zone : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v104 pp 301-308
Maier W D, Bowen M P,  1996 - The UG2ÐMerensky Reef interval of the Bushveld Complex northwest of Pretoria: in    Mineralium Deposita   v31 pp 386 - 393
Maier W D, de Klerk L, Blaine J, Manyeruke T, Barnes S-J, Stevens M V A and Mavrogenes J A,  2008 - Petrogenesis of contact-style PGE mineralization in the northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex: comparison of data from the farms Rooipoort, Townlands, Drenthe and Nonnenwerth: in    Mineralium Deposita   v43 pp 255-280
Maier W D, Sliep J, Barnes S-J, de Waal S A and Li C,  2001 - PGE-bearing mafic-ultramafic sills in the floor of the eastern Bushveld Complex on the farms Blaauwboschkraal, Zwartkopje, and Waterval : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v104 pp 343-354
Maier, W D, and Barnes, S-J  2003 - Platinum-group elements in the Boulder Bed, western Bushveld Complex, South Africa: in    Mineralium Deposita   v38 pp 370-380
Manyeruke T D, Maier W D and Barnes S J,  2005 - Major and trace element geochemistry of the Platreef on the farm Townlands, northern Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v108 pp 381-396
Mathez E A and Kent A J R,  2007 - Variable initial Pb isotopic compositions of rocks associated with the UG2 chromitite, eastern Bushveld Complex: in    Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta   v71 pp 5514-5527
Mathez E A and Mey J L  2005 - Character of the UG2 Chromitite and Host Rocks and Petrogenesis of Its Pegmatoidal Footwall, Northeastern Bushveld Complex: in    Econ. Geol.   v100 pp 1617-1630
McCarthy T S, Cawthorn R G, Wright C J, McIver J R  1985 - Mineral layering in the Bushveld complex: implications of Cr abundances in magnetite from closely spaced magnetite and intervening Silicate-rich layers: in    Econ. Geol.   v80 pp 1062-1074
McDonald I and Holwell D A,  2007 - Did lower zone magma conduits store PGE-rich sulphides that were later supplied to the Platreef?: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v110 pp 611-616
McDonald I, Holwell D A  and  Armitage P E B  2005 - Geochemistry and mineralogy of the Platreef and Critical Zone of the northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa: implications for Bushveld stratigraphy and the development of PGE mineralisation: in    Mineralium Deposita   v40 pp 526-549
McNaughton N J, Pollard P J, Groves D I, Taylor R G  1993 - A long-lived hydrothermal system in Bushveld Granites at the Zaaiplaats Tin mine: Lead isotope evidence: in    Econ. Geol.   v88 pp 27-43
Mitchell A A and Manthree R,  2002 - The Giant Mottled Anorthosite: a transitional sequence at the top of the Upper Critical Zone of the Bushveld Complex : in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v105 pp 15-24
Mitchell A A and Scoon R N,  2007 - The Merensky Reef at Winnaarshoek, Eastern Bushveld Complex: A Primary Magmatic Hypothesis Based on a Wide Reef Facies: in    Econ. Geol.   v102 pp 971-1009
Mitchell A A,  1990 - The stratigraphy, petrography and mineralogy of the main zone of the northwestern Bushveld Complex: in    S. Afr. J. Geol.   v93 pp 818-831
Mondal S K and Mathez E A,  2007 - Origin of the UG2 chromitite layer, Bushveld Complex: in    J. of Petrology   v48 pp 495-510
Naldrett A J, Gasparrini E C, Barnes S J, Von Gruenewaldt G, Sharpe M R  1986 - The upper critical zone of the Bushveld complex and the origin of Merensky-type ores: in    Econ. Geol.   v81 pp 1105-1117
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